Next Article in Journal
A Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arene-Based Ditopic Receptor for Alkylammonium Ions Controlled by Ag+ Ions
Next Article in Special Issue
Therapeutic Perspectives of 8-Prenylnaringenin, a Potent Phytoestrogen from Hops
Previous Article in Journal
Radical Polymerization of Alkyl 2-Cyanoacrylates
Previous Article in Special Issue
Efficacy of Compounds Isolated from the Essential Oil of Artemisia lavandulaefolia in Control of the Cigarette Beetle, Lasioderma serricorne
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 466;

Comparison of Inhibitory Capacities of 6-, 8- and 10-Gingerols/Shogaols on the Canonical NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated IL-1β Secretion

Department of Food Science, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activity of Secondary Metabolites)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3034 KB, uploaded 23 February 2018]   |  


Endogenous noninfectious substances that mediate the nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion causes inappropriate sterile inflammation and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Consequently, dietary phytochemicals exhibiting capacities to suppress canonical NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion can be a reliable supplement to prevent such diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the inhibitory effects of ginger phytochemicals, including 6-, 8- and 10-gingerols/shogaols on the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in THP-1 macrophages with ordered stimulations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). At 20 μM, the 10-gingerol and all the shogaols significantly inhibited canonical IL-1β secretion. The shogaols had a more potent inhibitory capacity than that of corresponding gingerols. Increase of alkyl chain length impacted negatively the inhibitory activity of shogaols. Additionally, these effective ginger phytochemicals not only inhibited the LPS-primed expression of pro-IL-1β and NLRP3, but also decreased ATP-activated caspase-1. The results demonstrated that ginger phytochemicals, especially the most potent, 6-shogaol, might be promising for developing as an inhibitor of the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion and further applied in prevention of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: gingerols; shogaols; NLRP3 inflammasome; caspase-1; IL-1β gingerols; shogaols; NLRP3 inflammasome; caspase-1; IL-1β

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, S.-C.; Chang, Y.-H. Comparison of Inhibitory Capacities of 6-, 8- and 10-Gingerols/Shogaols on the Canonical NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated IL-1β Secretion. Molecules 2018, 23, 466.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top