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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020462

Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Proso Millet Wine Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

1,2,3,*, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 4
1
Institute Millet Crops of Heibei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Shijiazhuang 050035, China
2
National Millet Improvement Center of China, Shijiazhuang 050035, China
3
Minor Cereal Crops Research Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050035, China
4
Shijiazhuang Livestock Products Quality Inspection & Supervision Center, Shijiazhuang 050041, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract

The volatile compounds in proso millet wine were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (85 μm polyacrylate (PA), 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), 75 μm Carboxen (CAR)/PDMS, and 50/30 μm divinylbenzene (DVB)/CAR/PDMS fibers), and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; the odor characteristics and intensities were analyzed by the odor activity value (OAV). Different sample preparation factors were used to optimize this method: sample amount, extraction time, extraction temperature, and content of NaCl. A total of 64 volatile compounds were identified from the wine sample, including 14 esters, seven alcohols, five aldehydes, five ketones, 12 benzene derivatives, 12 hydrocarbons, two terpenes, three phenols, two acids, and two heterocycles. Ethyl benzeneacetate, phenylethyl alcohol, and benzaldehyde were the main volatile compounds found in the samples. According to their OAVs, 14 volatile compounds were determined to be odor-active compounds (OAV > 1), and benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and biphenyl were the prominent odor-active compounds (OAV > 50), having a high OAV. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the difference of distribution of the 64 volatile compounds and 14 odor-active compounds with four solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. View Full-Text
Keywords: aroma compounds; proso millet wine; headspace solid-phase microextraction; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry aroma compounds; proso millet wine; headspace solid-phase microextraction; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
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Liu, J.; Zhao, W.; Li, S.; Zhang, A.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, S. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Proso Millet Wine Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Molecules 2018, 23, 462.

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