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Molecules 2018, 23(2), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020328

Prediction of Disordered Regions and Their Roles in the Anti-Pathogenic and Immunomodulatory Functions of Butyrophilins

1
Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, PO Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2
Therapeutic and Protective Proteins Laboratory, Protein Research Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute GEBRI, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg EL Arab 21934, Alexandria, Egypt
3
Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11651, Egypt
4
Department of Molecular Medicine and USF Health Byrd Alzheimer’s Research Institute, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
5
Laboratory of New Methods in Biology, Institute for Biological Instrumentation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 4 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5011 KB, uploaded 4 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Butyrophilins (BTNs) are a group of the moonlighting proteins, some members of which are secreted in milk. They constitute a large family of structurally similar type 1 transmembrane proteins from the immunoglobulin superfamily. Although the founding member of this family is related to lactation, participating in the secretion, formation and stabilization of milk fat globules, it may also have a cell surface receptor function. Generally, the BTN family members are known to modulate co-stimulatory responses, T cell selection, differentiation, and cell fate determination. Polymorphism of these genes was shown to be associated with the pathology of several human diseases. Despite their biological significance, structural information on human butyrophilins is rather limited. Based on their remarkable multifunctionality, butyrophilins seem to belong to the category of moonlighting proteins, which are known to contain intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs). However, the disorder status of human BTNs was not systematically investigated as of yet. The goal of this study is to fill this gap and to evaluate peculiarities of intrinsic disorder predisposition of the members of human BTN family, and to find if they have IDPRs that can be attributed to the multifunctionality of these important proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: butyrophilin; structure; function; immune response; antigen presentation; intrinsic disorder butyrophilin; structure; function; immune response; antigen presentation; intrinsic disorder
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Redwan, E.M.; Al-Hejin, A.M.; Almehdar, H.A.; Elsaway, A.M.; Uversky, V.N. Prediction of Disordered Regions and Their Roles in the Anti-Pathogenic and Immunomodulatory Functions of Butyrophilins. Molecules 2018, 23, 328.

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