Next Article in Journal
Study of the Direct Red 81 Dye/Copper(II)-Phenanthroline System
Previous Article in Journal
Anti-Tumor and Radiosensitization Effects of N-Butylidenephthalide on Human Breast Cancer Cells
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(2), 241;

Multispecies Adulteration Detection of Camellia Oil by Chemical Markers

1,3,5,6,* , 1,2
Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China
Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062, China
Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Oilseed Products (Wuhan), Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062, China
Key Laboratory of Detection for Mycotoxins, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062, China
Quality Inspection and Test Center for Oilseed Products, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062, China
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Green Transformation of Bio-Resources, Wuhan 430062, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1055 KB, uploaded 26 January 2018]   |  


Adulteration of edible oils has attracted attention from more researchers and consumers in recent years. Complex multispecies adulteration is a commonly used strategy to mask the traditional adulteration detection methods. Most of the researchers were only concerned about single targeted adulterants, however, it was difficult to identify complex multispecies adulteration or untargeted adulterants. To detect adulteration of edible oil, identification of characteristic markers of adulterants was proposed to be an effective method, which could provide a solution for multispecies adulteration detection. In this study, a simple method of multispecies adulteration detection for camellia oil (adulterated with soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil) was developed by quantifying chemical markers including four isoflavones, trans-resveratrol and sinapic acid, which used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with solid phase extraction (SPE). In commercial camellia oil, only two of them were detected of daidzin with the average content of 0.06 ng/g while other markers were absent. The developed method was highly sensitive as the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 ng/mL to 0.16 ng/mL and the mean recoveries ranged from 79.7% to 113.5%, indicating that this method was reliable to detect potential characteristic markers in edible oils. Six target compounds for pure camellia oils, soybean oils, peanut oils and rapeseed oils had been analyzed to get the results. The validation results indicated that this simple and rapid method was successfully employed to determine multispecies adulteration of camellia oil adulterated with soybean, peanut and rapeseed oils. View Full-Text
Keywords: multispecies-adulteration; characteristic markers; camellia oil; solid phase extraction multispecies-adulteration; characteristic markers; camellia oil; solid phase extraction

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dou, X.; Mao, J.; Zhang, L.; Xie, H.; Chen, L.; Yu, L.; Ma, F.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Q.; Li, P. Multispecies Adulteration Detection of Camellia Oil by Chemical Markers. Molecules 2018, 23, 241.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top