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Open AccessArticle

Determination of Bitterness of Andrographis Herba Based on Electronic Tongue Technology and Discovery of the Key Compounds of Bitter Substances

1
Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Science, No.16 Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei Ave., Beijing 100700, China
2
College of Pharmacy, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, No.156 Jinshuidong Ave., Zhengzhou 450046, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Innovative Natural Medicine and TCM Injections, Jiangxi Qingfeng Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., No. 8 Zhandongdong Ave., Ganzhou 341000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3362; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123362
Received: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
Andrographis Herba (AH), the dry aerial segments of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, is a common herbal remedy with bitter properties in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory. Although bitterness is one of the features representing Chinese medicine, it has not been implemented as an index to assess the quality and efficacy of TCM because of peoples’ subjectivity to taste. In this study, 30 batches of AH with different commercial classifications (leaves, stems, or mixtures of both) were collected. Bitterness of AH was quantified by electronic tongue technology. Meanwhile, chemical compositions were characterized through establishing high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints. The result indicated that the radar curves of the bitterness from different AH commercial classifications displayed different taste fingerprint information. Based on six taste factors, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) score three-dimensional (3D) plot exhibited a clear grouping trend (R2X, 0.912; Q2, 0.763) among the three different commercial classifications. Six compounds (Peaks 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8) with positive correlation to bitterness were discovered by a Spearman correlation analysis. Peaks 2, 6, 7, 8 were identified as andrographolide, neoandrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide, and dehydroandrographolide, respectively. The electronic tongue can be used to distinguish AH samples with different commercial classifications and for quality evaluation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Andrographis Herba; electronic tongue; chromatographic fingerprints; Principal Component Analysis; Spearman correlation analysis; bitter substances Andrographis Herba; electronic tongue; chromatographic fingerprints; Principal Component Analysis; Spearman correlation analysis; bitter substances
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Zhang, X.; Wu, H.; Yu, X.; Luo, H.; Lu, Y.; Yang, H.; Li, X.; Li, Z.; Tang, L.; Wang, Z. Determination of Bitterness of Andrographis Herba Based on Electronic Tongue Technology and Discovery of the Key Compounds of Bitter Substances. Molecules 2018, 23, 3362.

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