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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Antiproliferative, Proapoptotic, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Sinapis nigra L. and Sinapis alba L. Extracts

1
Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria, 9, 10125 Turin, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze della Sanità Pubblica e Pediatriche, University of Turin, P.za Polonia 94, 10126 Turin, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 3004; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23113004
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents)
High Brassicaceae consumption reduces the risk of developing several cancer types, probably due to high levels of glucosinolates. Extracts from Sinapis nigra L. (S. nigra) and Sinapis alba L. (S. alba) have been obtained from leaves and seeds under different conditions using ethanol/water mixtures because their glucosinolates are well accepted by the food industry. The EtOH/H2O 8:2 mixture gives better yields in glucosinolate amounts from ground seeds, mainly, sinalbin in S. alba and sinigrin in S. nigra. The highest antiproliferative activity in both non-tumor and tumor cell lines was induced by S. alba seeds extract. To evaluate whether the effect of Sinapis species (spp) was only due to glucosinolate content or whether it was influenced by the extracts’ complexity, cells were treated with extracts or glucosinolates, in the presence of myrosinase. Pure sinigrin did not modify cell proliferation, while pure sinalbin was less effective than the extract. The addition of myrosinase increased the antiproliferative effects of the S. nigra extract and sinigrin. Antiproliferative activity was correlated to Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases modulation, which was cell and extract-dependent. Cell-cycle analysis evidenced a proapoptotic effect of S. alba on both tumor cell lines and of S. nigra only on HCT 116. Both extracts showed good antimicrobial activity in disc diffusion tests and on ready-to-eat fresh salad. These results underline the potential effects of Sinapis spp in chemoprevention and food preservation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sinapis alba L.; Sinapis nigra L.; ultrasound-assisted extraction; antiproliferative; proapoptotic; antimicrobial Sinapis alba L.; Sinapis nigra L.; ultrasound-assisted extraction; antiproliferative; proapoptotic; antimicrobial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Boscaro, V.; Boffa, L.; Binello, A.; Amisano, G.; Fornasero, S.; Cravotto, G.; Gallicchio, M. Antiproliferative, Proapoptotic, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Sinapis nigra L. and Sinapis alba L. Extracts. Molecules 2018, 23, 3004.

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