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Molecules 2019, 24(3), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030636

Polyalcohols as Hydrogen-Bonding Donors in Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents for Extraction of Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia
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Academic Editor: Giancarlo Cravotto
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents)
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Abstract

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a fruit that is rich in xanthones, utilized as health supplements or additives in food products due to their high antioxidant activities. Choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with polyalcohols (ethylene glycol, glycerol, propanediols, and butanediols) as hydrogen bonding donors (HBDs) were used to extract the xanthones from the pericarp of mangosteen. DESs with 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,2-butanediol as HBDs (ChCl to HBD mole ratio of 1:3) afforded the highest extraction yields (2.40-2.63%) of α-mangostin, the most abundant component that represents xanthones. These DESs have intermediate Nile Red polar parameter values similar to that of ethanol and provide extraction yields with a quadratic dependence on the polar parameter. Polarity and viscosity, the important physicochemical properties to consider in the selection of DES as an extraction solvent, could be adjusted based on the consideration of the molecular structure of the polyalcohols. The following factors qualifies the ChCl-1,2-propanediol DES as a designer solvent for green extraction: It is selected from a set of DESs having a homologous class of HBDs to deliver the highest α-mangostin extraction yield, its extract composition similar to that obtained using ethanol, it has low or negligible vapor pressure, both of its components are generally recognized as safe chemicals so that direct utilization of a DES extract is possible, and this DES is used for utilization of agricultural waste products as the resource of bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep eutectic solvent; solvent extraction; Garcinia mangostana L.; mangosteen; α-mangostin; choline chloride; polyalcohol deep eutectic solvent; solvent extraction; Garcinia mangostana L.; mangosteen; α-mangostin; choline chloride; polyalcohol
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mulia, K.; Fauzia, F.; Krisanti, E.A. Polyalcohols as Hydrogen-Bonding Donors in Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents for Extraction of Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L.. Molecules 2019, 24, 636.

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