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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Immunomodulators Inspired by Nature: A Review on Curcumin and Echinacea

Department of Drug Sciences—Pharmacology Section, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2778;
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulatory Compounds)
The immune system is an efficient integrated network of cellular elements and chemicals developed to preserve the integrity of the organism against external insults and its correct functioning and balance are essential to avoid the occurrence of a great variety of disorders. To date, evidence from literature highlights an increase in immunological diseases and a great attention has been focused on the development of molecules able to modulate the immune response. There is an enormous global demand for new effective therapies and researchers are investigating new fields. One promising strategy is the use of herbal medicines as integrative, complementary and preventive therapy. The active components in medical plants have always been an important source of clinical therapeutics and the study of their molecular pharmacology is an enormous challenge since they offer a great chemical diversity with often multi-pharmacological activity. In this review, we mainly analysed the immunomodulatory/antinflammatory activity of Echinacea spp. and Curcuma longa, focusing on some issues of the phytochemical research and on new possible strategies to obtain novel agents to supplement the present therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune system; immunomodulators; curcumin; curcumin analogues; Echinacea; signal transduction pathways immune system; immunomodulators; curcumin; curcumin analogues; Echinacea; signal transduction pathways
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MDPI and ACS Style

Catanzaro, M.; Corsini, E.; Rosini, M.; Racchi, M.; Lanni, C. Immunomodulators Inspired by Nature: A Review on Curcumin and Echinacea. Molecules 2018, 23, 2778.

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