Next Article in Journal
Tagetes spp. Essential Oils and Other Extracts: Chemical Characterization and Biological Activity
Next Article in Special Issue
Biological Activity of the Carrier as a Factor in Immunogen Design for Haptens
Previous Article in Journal
Imidazo[1,2-b]pyrazole-7-carboxamides Induce Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells at Nanomolar Concentrations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Immunomodulators Inspired by Nature: A Review on Curcumin and Echinacea
Review

Heat Shock Proteins as Immunomodulants

Department of Biochemistry, University of Venda, P. Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2846; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112846
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulatory Compounds)
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are conserved molecules whose main role is to facilitate folding of other proteins. Most Hsps are generally stress-inducible as they play a particularly important cytoprotective role in cells exposed to stressful conditions. Initially, Hsps were generally thought to occur intracellulary. However, recent work has shown that some Hsps are secreted to the cell exterior particularly in response to stress. For this reason, they are generally regarded as danger signaling biomarkers. In this way, they prompt the immune system to react to prevailing adverse cellular conditions. For example, their enhanced secretion by cancer cells facilitate targeting of these cells by natural killer cells. Notably, Hsps are implicated in both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Their effects on immune cells depends on a number of aspects such as concentration of the respective Hsp species. In addition, various Hsp species exert unique effects on immune cells. Because of their conservation, Hsps are implicated in auto-immune diseases. Here we discuss the various metabolic pathways in which various Hsps manifest immune modulation. In addition, we discuss possible experimental variations that may account for contradictory reports on the immunomodulatory function of some Hsps. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat shock protein; immune modulation; Hsp70; Hsp90; Hsp60 heat shock protein; immune modulation; Hsp70; Hsp90; Hsp60
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zininga, T.; Ramatsui, L.; Shonhai, A. Heat Shock Proteins as Immunomodulants. Molecules 2018, 23, 2846. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112846

AMA Style

Zininga T, Ramatsui L, Shonhai A. Heat Shock Proteins as Immunomodulants. Molecules. 2018; 23(11):2846. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112846

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zininga, Tawanda, Lebogang Ramatsui, and Addmore Shonhai. 2018. "Heat Shock Proteins as Immunomodulants" Molecules 23, no. 11: 2846. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112846

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop