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Evaluation of Alkaloids Isolated from Ruta graveolens as Photosynthesis Inhibitors

1
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá-MT 78068-600, Brazil
2
Engineering Institute, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Várzea Grande-MT 78060-900, Brazil
3
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais-MG 37200-000, Brazil
4
Department of Biochemistry, University Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
5
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos-SP 13565-905, Brazil
6
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Paulo, Diadema-SP 09972-270, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John C. D’Auria
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2693; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102693
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Alkaloid Research)
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Abstract

Eight alkaloids (18) were isolated from Ruta graveolens, and their herbicide activities were evaluated through in vitro, semivivo, and in vivo assays. The most relevant results were observed for Compounds 5 and 68 at 150 μM, which decreased dry biomass by 20% and 23%, respectively. These are significant results since they presented similar values with the positive control, commercial herbicide 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU). Based on the performed assays, Compound 5 (graveoline) is classified as an electron-transport inhibitor during the light phase of photosynthesis, as well as a plant-growth regulator. On the other hand, Compounds 68 inhibited electron and energy transfers, and are also plant-growth inhibitors. These phytotoxic behaviors based on acridone and quinolone alkaloids may serve as a valuable tool in the further development of a new class of herbicides since natural products represent an interesting alternative to replace commercial herbicides, potentially due their low toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ruta graveolens; photosystem II; Chl a fluorescence; Hill reaction inhibitors; acridone alkaloids Ruta graveolens; photosystem II; Chl a fluorescence; Hill reaction inhibitors; acridone alkaloids
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Sampaio, O.M.; Vieira, L.C.C.; Bellete, B.S.; King-Diaz, B.; Lotina-Hennsen, B.; Da Silva, M.F.G.F.; Veiga, T.A.M. Evaluation of Alkaloids Isolated from Ruta graveolens as Photosynthesis Inhibitors. Molecules 2018, 23, 2693.

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