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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

High Potency of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Montenegro, Džordža Vašingtona bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
4
Rome Center for Molecular Design, Department of Drug Chemistry and Technology, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
5
Alchemical Dynamics s.r.l., 00125 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2584; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102584
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents)
Purpose: Herein, an extended investigation of Tea tree oil (TTO) against a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms in liquid and vapor phases is reported. Methods: The activity of TTO was tested against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Escherichia coli, and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta lactamases producer carbapenem-sensitive Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-CS-Kp), carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-Kp), Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CR-Pa). Minimal inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBCs) and synergistic activity between TTO and different antimicrobials were determined. In the vapor assay (VP), TTO-impregnated discs were placed on the lid of a petri dish and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C. Results: TTO showed a potent bactericidal activity against all the tested microorganisms. TTO in combination with each reference antimicrobial showed a high level of synergism at sub-inhibitory concentrations, particularly with oxacillin (OXA) against MRSA. The VP assay showed high activity of TTO against CR-Ab. Conclusion: Evaluation of in-vitro activity clearly indicated TTO as a potential effective antimicrobial treatment either alone or in association with known drugs against MDR. Therefore, TTO could represent the basis for a possible role in non-conventional regimens against S. aureus and Gram-negative MDR. TTO in VP might represent a promising option for local therapy of pneumonia caused by CR-Ab. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-drug resistant bacteria; essential oils; Melaleuca alternifolia; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; carbapenem-resistant microorganisms multi-drug resistant bacteria; essential oils; Melaleuca alternifolia; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; carbapenem-resistant microorganisms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliva, A.; Costantini, S.; De Angelis, M.; Garzoli, S.; Božović, M.; Mascellino, M.T.; Vullo, V.; Ragno, R. High Potency of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 2018, 23, 2584. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102584

AMA Style

Oliva A, Costantini S, De Angelis M, Garzoli S, Božović M, Mascellino MT, Vullo V, Ragno R. High Potency of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules. 2018; 23(10):2584. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102584

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oliva, Alessandra; Costantini, Silvia; De Angelis, Massimiliano; Garzoli, Stefania; Božović, Mijat; Mascellino, Maria T.; Vullo, Vincenzo; Ragno, Rino. 2018. "High Potency of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus" Molecules 23, no. 10: 2584. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102584

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