Next Article in Journal
Curcumin Attenuates on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice via Modulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 and TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Lipophilic Phenethyl Trifluoroacetate Esters by In Vitro ABTS, DPPH and in Cell-Culture DCF Assays
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 73;

In Silico and In Vitro Study of the Bromelain-Phytochemical Complex Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 (Pla2)

Malaysia Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Malaysia
Department of Bioprocess and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 19 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3587 KB, uploaded 19 January 2018]   |  


Phospholipase A2 (Pla2) is an enzyme that induces inflammation, making Pla2 activity an effective approach to reduce inflammation. Therefore, investigating natural compounds for this Pla2 inhibitory activity has important therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential in bromelain-phytochemical complex inhibitors via a combination of in silico and in vitro methods. Bromelain-amenthoflavone displays antagonistic effects on Pla2. Bromelian-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin displayed synergistic effects at high concentrations of the combined compounds, with inhibition percentages of more than 70% and 90%, respectively, and antagonistic effects at low concentrations. The synergistic effect of the bromelain-asiaticoside and bromelain-diosgenin combinations represents a new application in treating inflammation. These findings not only provide significant quantitative data, but also provide an insight on valuable implications for the combined use of bromelain with asiaticoside and diosgenin in treating inflammation, and may help researchers develop more natural bioactive compounds in daily foods as anti-inflammatory agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: combination index; bromelain; phospholipase A2; anti-inflammatory agent; phytochemical combination index; bromelain; phospholipase A2; anti-inflammatory agent; phytochemical

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mohamed Tap, F.; Abd Majid, F.A.; Ismail, H.F.; Wong, T.S.; Shameli, K.; Miyake, M.; Ahmad Khairudin, N.B. In Silico and In Vitro Study of the Bromelain-Phytochemical Complex Inhibition of Phospholipase A2 (Pla2). Molecules 2018, 23, 73.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top