Next Article in Journal
Recyclable Keggin Heteropolyacids as an Environmentally Benign Catalyst for the Synthesis of New 2-Benzoylamino-N-phenyl-benzamide Derivatives under Microwave Irradiations at Solvent-Free Conditions and the Evaluation of Biological Activity
Next Article in Special Issue
Phytoestrogenic Activity of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Is Partially Mediated through Estrogen Receptor Beta
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis of Non-Racemic Pyrazolines and Pyrazolidines by [3+2] Cycloadditions of Azomethine Imines
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Antinociceptive and Antibacterial Properties of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Fruits of Black and Non-Black Mulberries

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400715, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(1), 4;
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 16 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anthocyanin Research 2018)
PDF [3102 KB, uploaded 21 December 2017]


Anthocyanins and flavones are important pigments responsible for the coloration of fruits. Mulberry fruit is rich in anthocyanins and flavonols, which have multiple uses in traditional Chinese medicine. The antinociceptive and antibacterial activities of total flavonoids (TF) from black mulberry (MnTF, TF of Morus nigra) and non-black mulberry (MmTF, TF of Morus mongolica; and MazTF, TF of Morus alba ‘Zhenzhubai’) fruits were studied. MnTF was rich in anthocyanins (11.3 mg/g) and flavonols (0.7 mg/g) identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tunable ultraviolet/mass single-quadrupole detection (UPLC–TUV/QDa). Comparatively, MmTF and MazTF had low flavonol contents and MazTF had no anthocyanins. MnTF showed significantly higher antinociceptive and antibacterial activities toward Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus than MmTF and MazTF. MnTF inhibited the expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), phospho-p65 (p-p65) and phospho-IκBα (p-IκBα), and increased interleukin 10 (IL-10). Additionally, mice tests showed that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), rutin (Ru) and isoquercetin (IQ) were the main active ingredients in the antinociceptive process. Stronger antinociceptive effect of MnTF was correlated with its high content of anthocyanins and flavonols and its inhibitory effects on proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway-related proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; antibacterial; antinociceptive; flavonols; Morus anthocyanins; antibacterial; antinociceptive; flavonols; Morus

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, H.; Yu, W.; Chen, G.; Meng, S.; Xiang, Z.; He, N. Antinociceptive and Antibacterial Properties of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Fruits of Black and Non-Black Mulberries. Molecules 2018, 23, 4.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top