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Molecules 2018, 23(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23010106

Synergistic Promotion on Tyrosinase Inhibition by Antioxidants

1
Chinese Material Medical College, Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China
2
Tianjin JiaShiTang Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin 300457, China
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 31 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract

When exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the human skin produces profuse reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn activate a variety of biological responses. Mounting ROS levels activate tyrosinase by mobilizing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the epidermis and finally stimulates the melanocytes to produce melanin. Meanwhile, the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE pathway, which removes ROS, is activated at increased ROS levels, and antioxidant compounds facilitates the dissociation of Nrf2. In this study, we explored the possible suppressing effects of antioxidant compounds and tyrosine inhibitors on melanin formation and the promotory effects of these compounds on ROS scavenging. The antioxidant activity of glabridin (GLA), resveratrol (RES), oxyresveratrol (OXYR), and phenylethylresorcinol (PR) were investigated via the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. The inhibitory effects of the four compounds and their mixtures on tyrosinase were evaluated. l-Tyrosine or 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-l-alanine (l-DOPA) was used as a substrate. The results showed that all mixtures did not exhibit synergistic effects with the l-tyrosine as a substrate, suggesting that l-tyrosine is not suitable as a substrate. However, the mixtures of “GLA:RES,” “GLA:OXYR,” “OXYR:RES,” and “PR:RES” demonstrated synergistic effects (CI < 0.9, p < 0.05), whereas “GLA:RES” and “PR:OXYR” indicated an additive effect (0.9 ditive1, p < 0.05). Furthermore, we used a molecular docking strategy to study the interactions of the four compounds with tyrosinase and l-DOPA. The molecular docking result is consistent with that of the experiment. Finally, we selected RES + OXYR and used PIG1 cells to verify whether OXYR synergistically promotes RES activity on tyrosinase. The two agents had a synergistic inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. These results provided a novel synergistic strategy for antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors, and this strategy is useful in skin injury treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: tyrosinase inhibitory activity; antioxidant activity; synergistic effect; molecular docking strategy tyrosinase inhibitory activity; antioxidant activity; synergistic effect; molecular docking strategy
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Wang, Y.; Hao, M.-M.; Sun, Y.; Wang, L.-F.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Y.-J.; Li, H.-Y.; Zhuang, P.-W.; Yang, Z. Synergistic Promotion on Tyrosinase Inhibition by Antioxidants. Molecules 2018, 23, 106.

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