Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Deoxynivalenol on Selected Populations of Immunocompetent Cells in Porcine Blood—A Preliminary Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality of Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) Using UHPLC-Quadrupole-Orbitrap MS/MS-Based Metabolomics
Previous Article in Journal
Bioactive Components from Qingwen Baidu Decoction against LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diversity Analysis and Bioresource Characterization of Halophilic Bacteria Isolated from a South African Saltpan
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 688;

Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth

College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops (Northwest Region), Ministry of Agriculture, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
College of Landscape Architecture and Arts, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
The first two authors contributed equally to this research.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [1997 KB, uploaded 26 April 2017]   |  


Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanin; acylation; flower color; methylation; Muscari anthocyanin; acylation; flower color; methylation; Muscari

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lou, Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth. Molecules 2017, 22, 688.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top