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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22122223

Calli Essential Oils Synergize with Lawsone against Multidrug Resistant Pathogens

1
Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, and College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, UAE
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
3
Division of Infectious Diseases, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA
4
Department of Biotechnology & Life Sciences, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PSAS), Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
5
Molecular Instrumentation Center, Department of Chemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
6
East Virginia Medical School Family Practice, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA
7
Department of Translational Research & Cellular Therapeutics, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA
8
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents)
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Abstract

The fast development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms increasingly threatens global health and well-being. Plant natural products have been known for centuries as alternative medicines that can possess pharmacological characteristics, including antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activities of essential oil (Calli oil) extracted from the Calligonum comosum plant by hydro-steam distillation was tested either alone or when combined with lawsone, a henna plant naphthoquinone, against MDR microbes. Lawsone showed significant antimicrobial activities against MDR pathogens in the range of 200–300 µg/mL. Furthermore, Calli oil showed significant antimicrobial activities against MDR bacteria in the range of 180–200 µg/mL, Candida at 220–240 µg/mL and spore-forming Rhizopus fungus at 250 µg/mL. Calli oil’s inhibition effect on Rhizopus, the major cause of the lethal infection mucormycosis, stands for 72 h, followed by an extended irreversible white sporulation effect. The combination of Calli oil with lawsone enhanced the antimicrobial activities of each individual alone by at least three-fold, while incorporation of both natural products in a liposome reduced their toxicity by four- to eight-fold, while maintaining the augmented efficacy of the combination treatment. We map the antimicrobial activity of Calli oil to its major component, a benzaldehyde derivative. The findings from this study demonstrate that formulations containing essential oils have the potential in the future to overcome antimicrobial resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobials; Calligonum; essential oil; lawsone; combination treatment; liposomes antimicrobials; Calligonum; essential oil; lawsone; combination treatment; liposomes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Soliman, S.S.M.; Alsaadi, A.I.; Youssef, E.G.; Khitrov, G.; Noreddin, A.M.; Husseiny, M.I.; Ibrahim, A.S. Calli Essential Oils Synergize with Lawsone against Multidrug Resistant Pathogens. Molecules 2017, 22, 2223.

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