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Anti-Candida Activity of Bursera morelensis Ramirez Essential Oil and Two Compounds, α-Pinene and γ-Terpinene—An In Vitro Study

Calli Essential Oils Synergize with Lawsone against Multidrug Resistant Pathogens

Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, and College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, UAE
Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
Division of Infectious Diseases, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA
Department of Biotechnology & Life Sciences, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences (PSAS), Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
Molecular Instrumentation Center, Department of Chemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
East Virginia Medical School Family Practice, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA
Department of Translational Research & Cellular Therapeutics, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010-3000, USA
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2223;
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils as Antimicrobial and Anti-infectious Agents)
The fast development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms increasingly threatens global health and well-being. Plant natural products have been known for centuries as alternative medicines that can possess pharmacological characteristics, including antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activities of essential oil (Calli oil) extracted from the Calligonum comosum plant by hydro-steam distillation was tested either alone or when combined with lawsone, a henna plant naphthoquinone, against MDR microbes. Lawsone showed significant antimicrobial activities against MDR pathogens in the range of 200–300 µg/mL. Furthermore, Calli oil showed significant antimicrobial activities against MDR bacteria in the range of 180–200 µg/mL, Candida at 220–240 µg/mL and spore-forming Rhizopus fungus at 250 µg/mL. Calli oil’s inhibition effect on Rhizopus, the major cause of the lethal infection mucormycosis, stands for 72 h, followed by an extended irreversible white sporulation effect. The combination of Calli oil with lawsone enhanced the antimicrobial activities of each individual alone by at least three-fold, while incorporation of both natural products in a liposome reduced their toxicity by four- to eight-fold, while maintaining the augmented efficacy of the combination treatment. We map the antimicrobial activity of Calli oil to its major component, a benzaldehyde derivative. The findings from this study demonstrate that formulations containing essential oils have the potential in the future to overcome antimicrobial resistance. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobials; Calligonum; essential oil; lawsone; combination treatment; liposomes antimicrobials; Calligonum; essential oil; lawsone; combination treatment; liposomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soliman, S.S.M.; Alsaadi, A.I.; Youssef, E.G.; Khitrov, G.; Noreddin, A.M.; Husseiny, M.I.; Ibrahim, A.S. Calli Essential Oils Synergize with Lawsone against Multidrug Resistant Pathogens. Molecules 2017, 22, 2223.

AMA Style

Soliman SSM, Alsaadi AI, Youssef EG, Khitrov G, Noreddin AM, Husseiny MI, Ibrahim AS. Calli Essential Oils Synergize with Lawsone against Multidrug Resistant Pathogens. Molecules. 2017; 22(12):2223.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soliman, Sameh S.M., Abrar I. Alsaadi, Eman G. Youssef, Gregory Khitrov, Ayman M. Noreddin, Mohamed I. Husseiny, and Ashraf S. Ibrahim. 2017. "Calli Essential Oils Synergize with Lawsone against Multidrug Resistant Pathogens" Molecules 22, no. 12: 2223.

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