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Bio-Based Aromatic Epoxy Monomers for Thermoset Materials

Institut Charles Gerhardt—UMR 5253, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, 8 rue de l’Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thomas Farmer and James H. Clark
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 149;
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemicals from Biomass)


The synthesis of polymers from renewable resources is a burning issue that is actively investigated. Polyepoxide networks constitute a major class of thermosetting polymers and are extensively used as coatings, electronic materials, adhesives. Owing to their outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, chemical resistance, adhesion, and minimal shrinkage after curing, they are used in structural applications as well. Most of these thermosets are industrially manufactured from bisphenol A (BPA), a substance that was initially synthesized as a chemical estrogen. The awareness on BPA toxicity combined with the limited availability and volatile cost of fossil resources and the non-recyclability of thermosets implies necessary changes in the field of epoxy networks. Thus, substitution of BPA has witnessed an increasing number of studies both from the academic and industrial sides. This review proposes to give an overview of the reported aromatic multifunctional epoxide building blocks synthesized from biomass or from molecules that could be obtained from transformed biomass. After a reminder of the main glycidylation routes and mechanisms and the recent knowledge on BPA toxicity and legal issues, this review will provide a brief description of the main natural sources of aromatic molecules. The different epoxy prepolymers will then be organized from simple, mono-aromatic di-epoxy, to mono-aromatic poly-epoxy, to di-aromatic di-epoxy compounds, and finally to derivatives possessing numerous aromatic rings and epoxy groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: epoxidation; aromatic; epichlorohydrin; tannin; lignin; cardanol epoxidation; aromatic; epichlorohydrin; tannin; lignin; cardanol

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ng, F.; Couture, G.; Philippe, C.; Boutevin, B.; Caillol, S. Bio-Based Aromatic Epoxy Monomers for Thermoset Materials. Molecules 2017, 22, 149.

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