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13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Institute of Chemistry, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1168;
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
PDF [1748 KB, uploaded 5 September 2016]


It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK), whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS) and Taiwan (China) light (TL), which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce. View Full-Text
Keywords: soy sauce; NMR; metabolomics; PCA; OPLS-DA; metabolites; fermentation soy sauce; NMR; metabolomics; PCA; OPLS-DA; metabolites; fermentation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kamal, G.M.; Yuan, B.; Hussain, A.I.; Wang, J.; Jiang, B.; Zhang, X.; Liu, M. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces. Molecules 2016, 21, 1168.

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