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Erratum published on 7 November 2017, see Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1890.

Open AccessArticle

Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine

School of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
Laboratory of Asymmetric Synthesis, Chemistry Institute of Natural Resources, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
Nanobiotechnology Division at Universidad de Talca, Fraunhofer Chile Research Foundation—Center for Systems Biotechnology, FCR-CSB, Talca 3460000, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Susan E. Ebeler and Helene Hopfer
Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14312-14325;
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 17 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
PDF [1715 KB, uploaded 8 November 2017]


Volatile phenols, such as 4-ethyphenol (4-EP) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), are responsible for the “Brett character” found in wines contaminated with Brettanomyces yeast (i.e., barnyard, animal, spicy and smoky aromas). In these trials, we explore the effectiveness of polyaniline-based compounds (polyaniline emeraldin salt (PANI-ES) and polyanaline emeraldin base (PANI-EB)), for the removal of 4-EP and 4-EG from acidic model solutions and red wine. First, a screening study, performed in an acidified 12% ethanol solution, was used to optimize parameters such as contact time and the amount of polymers required to remove 4-EP and 4-EG. Then, the trapping ability of PANI agents towards 4-EP and 4-EG was evaluated in a model solution containing other wine phenolics that could potentially be trapped by PANI (i.e., gallic acid and 4-methylcatechol). The results of this trial showed that both PANI compounds were capable of removing 4-EP, 4-EG, regardless of the presence of other phenolic compounds present at a much higher concentration. Finally, the capturing ability of PANI was evaluated in a red wine sample containing 5 mg·L−1 of 4-EP, 5 mg·L−1 of 4-EG and 2.03 ± 0.02 g·L−1 of total phenolics. The results showed that PANI-EB removed significantly more 4-EP and 4-EG than PANI-ES. For instance, a treatment with 10 mg·mL−1 of PANI-EB produced a 67.8% reduction of 4-EP, 50% reduction of 4-EG and 41.38% decrease in total phenols. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4-EP; 4-EG; polyaniline; conjugated polymers; wine; QuEChERS 4-EP; 4-EG; polyaniline; conjugated polymers; wine; QuEChERS

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Carrasco-Sánchez, V.; John, A.; Marican, A.; Santos, L.S.; Laurie, V.F. Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine. Molecules 2015, 20, 14312-14325.

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