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Open AccessArticle

Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells

1
School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China
2
Engineering Research Centre of Shanghai Colleges for TCM New Drug Discovery, Shanghai 201203, China
3
Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No. 100 Shizi Street, Hongshan Road, Nanjing 210028, China
4
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Resource Discovery, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhong-shan Road, Dalian 116023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pascal Richomme
Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11387-11399; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200611387
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins, Xanthones and Related Compounds)
Two new xanthones, cowaxanthones G (1) and H (2), and 23 known analogues were isolated from an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia cowa. The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines and immortalized HL7702 normal liver cells, whereby compounds 1, 5, 8, and 1517 exhibited significant cytotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that 5 induced cell cycle arrest at the S phase in a dose-dependent manner, 1 and 16 at the G2/M phase, and 17 at the G1 phase, while 16 and 17 induced apoptosis. Moreover, autophagy analysis by GFP-LC3 puncta formation and western blotting suggested that 17 induced autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that these xanthones possess anticancer activities targeting cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy signaling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: Garcinia cowa; xanthone; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; autophagy Garcinia cowa; xanthone; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; cell cycle arrest; autophagy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xia, Z.; Zhang, H.; Xu, D.; Lao, Y.; Fu, W.; Tan, H.; Cao, P.; Yang, L.; Xu, H. Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa Induce Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagy in Cancer Cells. Molecules 2015, 20, 11387-11399.

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