Next Article in Journal
Investigation of the Flexibility of Protein Kinases Implicated in the Pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Simultaneous Location of Resveratrol, Pterostilbene and Viniferins on Grapevine Leaves
Previous Article in Journal
Bioactive Profiles, Antioxidant Activities, Nitrite Scavenging Capacities and Protective Effects on H2O2-Injured PC12 Cells of Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Leaf and Root Extracts
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inhibition of Cancer Derived Cell Lines Proliferation by Synthesized Hydroxylated Stilbenes and New Ferrocenyl-Stilbene Analogs. Comparison with Resveratrol
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 9114-9133;

Red Card for Pathogens: Phytoalexins in Sorghum and Maize

Department of Microbial Genetics, Institute of Applied Microbiology, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, Aachen 52074, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2014 / Revised: 26 June 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 30 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytoalexins: Current Progress and Future Prospects)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1077 KB, uploaded 30 June 2014]   |  


Cereal crop plants such as maize and sorghum are constantly being attacked by a great variety of pathogens that cause large economic losses. Plants protect themselves against pathogens by synthesizing antimicrobial compounds, which include phytoalexins. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on phytoalexins produced by sorghum (luteolinidin, apigeninidin) and maize (zealexin, kauralexin, DIMBOA and HDMBOA). For these molecules, we highlight biosynthetic pathways, known intermediates, proposed enzymes, and mechanisms of elicitation. Finally, we discuss the involvement of phytoalexins in plant resistance and their possible application in technology, medicine and agriculture. For those whose world is round we tried to set the scene in the context of a hypothetical football game in which pathogens fight with phytoalexins on the different playing fields provided by maize and sorghum. View Full-Text
Keywords: luteolinidin; apigeninidin; kauralexin; zealexin; DIMBOA; HDMBOA; biosynthesis; regulation; sorghum; maize luteolinidin; apigeninidin; kauralexin; zealexin; DIMBOA; HDMBOA; biosynthesis; regulation; sorghum; maize

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Poloni, A.; Schirawski, J. Red Card for Pathogens: Phytoalexins in Sorghum and Maize. Molecules 2014, 19, 9114-9133.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top