Next Article in Journal
Characterization of Protein and Peptide Binding to Nanogels Formed by Differently Charged Chitosan Derivatives
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi
Previous Article in Journal
Two New Phenolic Glycosides from Gnaphalium affine D. Don and Their Anti-Complementary Activity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design, Synthesis and Trypanocidal Evaluation of Novel 1,2,4-Triazoles-3-thiones Derived from Natural Piperine
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2013, 18(7), 7761-7847;

In-silico Leishmania Target Selectivity of Antiparasitic Terpenoids

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 23 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Natural Products against Human Parasites)


Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), like leishmaniasis, are major causes of mortality in resource-limited countries. The mortality associated with these diseases is largely due to fragile healthcare systems, lack of access to medicines, and resistance by the parasites to the few available drugs. Many antiparasitic plant-derived isoprenoids have been reported, and many of them have good in vitro activity against various forms of Leishmania spp. In this work, potential Leishmania biochemical targets of antiparasitic isoprenoids were studied in silico. Antiparasitic monoterpenoids selectively docked to L. infantum nicotinamidase, L. major uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase and methionyl t-RNA synthetase. The two protein targets selectively targeted by germacranolide sesquiterpenoids were L. major methionyl t-RNA synthetase and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Diterpenoids generally favored docking to L. mexicana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Limonoids also showed some selectivity for L. mexicana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and L. major dihydroorotate dehydrogenase while withanolides docked more selectively with L. major uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase. The selectivity of the different classes of antiparasitic compounds for the protein targets considered in this work can be explored in fragment- and/or structure-based drug design towards the development of leads for new antileishmanial drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: antileishmanial activity; terpenoids; drug targets; docking; Leishmania antileishmanial activity; terpenoids; drug targets; docking; Leishmania

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ogungbe, I.V.; Setzer, W.N. In-silico Leishmania Target Selectivity of Antiparasitic Terpenoids. Molecules 2013, 18, 7761-7847.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top