# There Is No Spooky Action at a Distance in Quantum Mechanics

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Einstein’s Spooky Action at a Distance

After the collision, the real state of (AB) consists precisely of the real state A and the real state of B, which two states have nothing to do with one another. The real state of B thus cannot depend upon the kind of measurement I carry out on A [separation principle]. But then for the same state of B there are two (in general arbitrarily many) equally justified [wave functions] ${\mathsf{\Psi}}_{B}$, which contradicts the hypothesis of a one-to-one or complete description of the real states.

## 3. Entanglement

## 4. The Pragmatic Perspective

## 5. The Quantum Wave Function

…no one has yet made a qualitatively accurate theoretical description of a measuring device. Thus what experimentalists do, in practice, is to calibrate their devices…[then] with plausible assumptions…it is possible to build up a catalog of correspondences between what experimentalists do and see, and the wave functions of the prepared and measured systems. It is this body of accumulated empirical knowledge that bridges the gap between the operational specifications A and B and their mathematical images ${\mathsf{\Psi}}_{A}$ and ${\mathsf{\Psi}}_{B}$. Next a transition function $U\left(x;y\right)$ is constructed in accordance with certain theoretical rules…the ‘transition amplitude’ $\u27e8A|B\rangle \equiv {\displaystyle \int}{\mathsf{\Psi}}_{A}\left(x\right)U\left(x;y\right){\mathsf{\Psi}}_{B}^{*}dxdy$ is computed. The predicted probability that a measurement performed in the manner specified by B will yield a result specified by B, if the preparation is performed in the manner specified by A, is given by $P\left(A,B\right)={\left|\u27e8A|B\rangle \right|}^{2}$.

## 6. Final Remarks

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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Boughn, S.
There Is No Spooky Action at a Distance in Quantum Mechanics. *Entropy* **2022**, *24*, 560.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e24040560

**AMA Style**

Boughn S.
There Is No Spooky Action at a Distance in Quantum Mechanics. *Entropy*. 2022; 24(4):560.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e24040560

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Boughn, Stephen.
2022. "There Is No Spooky Action at a Distance in Quantum Mechanics" *Entropy* 24, no. 4: 560.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e24040560