Recent Status and Prospects on Thermochemical Heat Storage Processes and Applications
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. General Concepts of TCHS
3. The Different Processes for TCHS
 Storage capacity: this defines how much energy the system can store and varies significantly according to the process, the device, and the scale of the system involved.
 Power: it defines the speed at which the energy stored in the system can be released (and loaded).
 Efficiency: it is the balance between the energy received by the user and the energy required to charge the storage unit. It takes into account the energy losses during the storing process.
 Storage period: this is the total time that energy is stored, ranging from few hours to several months. This enables characteristics such as short or longterm storage.
 Charge/discharge time: it defines the duration needed to fully charge and discharge the system.
 Cost of the technology: it evaluates the cost price of the system by referring either to the capacity (cost/kWh) or the power (cost/kW) of the system and fluctuates according to the investment and operating costs of the equipment involved and their life span.
3.1. Absorption Storage Process
3.2. Adsorption Storage Process
3.3. Chemical Reactions Storage Process
 The energy density is, respectively, higher than for adsorption and absorption storage systems.
 The temperature can rise to 1000 °C for a certain application.
 The heat can be restored at a constant temperature.
 The storage time, as well as the transport distance of the reagents, is theoretically unlimited since the products are stored under ambient temperature. This process is the most suitable heat storage process for seasonal storage, i.e., storing energy in the summer and releasing it in the winter for a long duration.
4. TCHS Materials
 The high affinity of the sorbent for the sorbate: impacts the rate of the reaction.
 Better volatility of the sorbate than the sorbent in absorption.
 High thermal conductivity and high heat transfer with the heat transfer fluid in the case adsorption.
 Desorption temperature as low as possible and suitable permeability.
 Environmental safety, nontoxicity, low global warming potential and ozone depletion potential, and low cost.
 Noncorrosiveness of materials and a low recovery temperature to ensure high solar fractions.
 Good thermal and molecular stability under assigned operating conditions (temperature, pressure).
 Moderate operating pressure range, no excessive pressure conditions, and especially no high vacuum.
4.1. Materials for Absorption and Adsorption Storage Processes
4.2. Materials for Chemical Reaction Energy Storage Process
5. TCES Reactors
5.1. TCES Reactor Sizing Analysis Criteria and Assumptions
5.2. TCES Reactor Classification
 The very low heat and mass transfer efficiency of the system.
 The nonuniform distribution of the energy to be stored within the material reservoir.
 The uncontrolled corrosion of internal components.
 The high cost of the conception, which reduces the number of available prototypes.
 The need for additional gas for fluidization in the case of fluidized reactors.
 The difficulty of maintaining reactor components.
 The very highpressure drops of the transfer fluid at the outlet.
 The limited number of available simulations works that do not allow a thorough understanding of the physical phenomena involved.
6. TCHS Systems Prototypes and Projects
7. Conclusions and Prospects
 TCHS is a wide area of investigation more than as discussed in one paper.
 Absorption and adsorption processes are commonly used for space heating purposes and applications that require a low or middle grade of temperature, whereas the chemical reaction process is used for high energy density and high temperature.
 Magnesium chloride has received considerable interest in recent work with the increasing use of opencircuit reactors for building heating applications and inorganic hydroxide material for hightemperature applications.
 The shape of the reactors, as well as the correct choice of the reactive bed, appeared to be very important. It should therefore be emphasized that before any experimental work and any prototype design, a numerical simulation through the abovementioned software must be performed, and the simulation works should be clear enough and realistic to allow the implementation in a prototype device for experimentations
 The sizing of heat exchangers is an integral part of reactor sizing, and their efficiency has an impact on the reactor performance.
 Before any design of the system, it is necessary to take into account the real application required (building heating, industrial hot temperature process, etc.).
 Closed TCHS reactors require a heat exchanger to provide or remove the heat of the reaction. It involves a lot of technical components but allows better control of the reactor and offers better reaction kinetics.
 The open TCHS reactor, because it operates at atmospheric pressure, overcomes these constraints, offering a more simplified and less economical design, but it cannot provide better control of the reactor. New technology must therefore be found to combine these two operating systems. We suggest the type of open system capable of operating with a heat exchanger connected to an external open system.
 For both TCHS reactors, many barriers remain to be overcome. Particularly on the geometries of the devices, which do not ensure an optimal operation. Heat exchanger selection criteria, the control of the transfer phenomena within the reactors, and the problems of recycling materials after the reactions are some. While the cycles and lifetimes of the materials altered after the reactions, the problem of corrosion within the reactors as well as the high thermal losses deteriorates the performance of the equipment. The problems of adapting specific devices for each type of application involved, and the difficulties of maintenance of the systems due to their complexity complete the barrier list.
 Numerical simulations are of crucial importance in the dimensioning of thermochemical heat storage systems. In this study, a dashboard has been prosed for this purpose.
 For the visualization of physical phenomena occurring within the reactor, more recently the COMSOL Multiphysics software is increasingly being used since it offers a 3D model for the resolution of equations with a very satisfactory mesh system and calculation accuracy. The Trnsys Simulation software is also used in the case of a macroscale simulation involving the production or storage of energy until its enduse. It should therefore be emphasized that before any experimental work and any prototype design, a numerical simulation through microscale and macroscale system software must be performed.
 Future research directions must take into account:
 The problems that hinder TCHS technology separately: microscopic aspect and macroscopic aspect.
 The enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the storage materials and the stability of the reaction cycles.
 The development of several models of the reactive bed, allowing better storage and a total reaction rate of the materials.
 The investigation of coupling between the physics of heat transfer in porous media, chemical reactions, and the transport of diluted species in solution.
 The analysis of corrosion problems inside reactors.
 The numerical simulation of a varied range of a combination of reactor and storage materials, to have a consistent database for technological choices.
 Intensifying of experimentation efforts to validate and promote numerical models and simulations works, and application of TCHS technology through technical and economic feasibility analysis.
Author Contributions
Funding
Conflicts of Interest
Nomenclature
$A$  preexponential factor [1/s] 
$c$  concentration of the material [mol/m^{3}] 
${C}_{p}$  specific molar heat capacity [J/(mol·K] 
${D}_{g}$  vapor diffusion coefficient $\left[{\mathrm{m}}^{2}/\mathrm{s}\right]$ 
$E$  activation energy $\left[\mathrm{k}\mathrm{J}/\mathrm{mol}\right]$ 
$g$  acceleration of gravity $\left[{\mathrm{m}}^{2}/\mathrm{s}\right]$ 
$k$  permeability $[{\mathrm{m}}^{2}]$ 
M  Molecular mass $\left[\mathrm{kg}/\mathrm{mol}\right]$ 
$m$  mass of the material $\left[\mathrm{kg}\right]$ 
$N$  number of the moles in the bed 
p  pressure [Pa] 
$P$  thermal power $\left[k\mathrm{W}\right]$ 
${P}^{0}$  reference pressure [1 bar] 
$Q$  amount of heat consumption $\left[\mathrm{kJ}\right]$ 
$R$  Ideal gas constant $\left[\mathrm{J}/\left(\mathrm{mol}\xb7\mathrm{K}\right)\right]$ 
s  entropy $\left[\mathrm{kJ}/\mathrm{kg}\xb7\mathrm{K}\right]$ 
${S}_{\mathrm{w}}$  Sink or source $\left[\mathrm{mol}/\mathrm{s}\right]$ 
$G$  gas 
$S$  solid 
s  sorbent 
t  total 
t  time [s] 
$\overrightarrow{u}$  velocity vector 
$V$  atomic volume $\left[{m}^{3}\right]$ 
$X$  advancement of the reaction [] 
$\Delta {G}_{r}$  free Gibbs energy $\left[kJ/mo{l}_{v}\right]$ 
$\Delta {G}_{r}^{0}$  free standard Gibbs energy $\left[kJ/mo{l}_{v}\right]$ 
$\Delta {h}_{r}^{0}$  reaction standard entropy $\left[kJ/mo{l}_{v}\right]$ 
$\Delta {S}_{r}^{0}$  reaction standard enthalpy $\left[kJ/\left(mo{l}_{v}\xb7K\right)\right]$ 
TCHS  Thermochemical Heat Storage 
$\rho $  density $\left[kg/{m}^{3}\right]$ 
$\mu $  air velocity 
$\nu $  stoichiometric coefficient 
Subscript  
0  anhydrous state 
1  hydrate state 
eff  effective 
eq  equilibrium 
i  initial 
Greek symbols  
$\alpha $  extent conversion [%] 
$\beta $  heating rate [K/min] 
$\epsilon $  Porosity [%] 
λ  thermal conductivity [W/(m·K)] 
$\Pi $  equilibrium constant [] 
References
 Cabeza, L.F.; Solé, A.; Barreneche, C. Review on sorption materials and technologies for heat pumps and thermal energy storage. Renew. Energy 2017, 110, 3–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Palomba, V.; Frazzica, A. Recent advancements in sorption technology for solar thermal energy storage applications. Sol. Energy 2019, 192, 69–105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Prasad, J.S.; Muthukumar, P.; Desai, F.; Basu, D.N.; Rahman, M.M. A critical review of hightemperature reversible thermochemical energy storage systems. Appl. Energy 2019, 254, 113733. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Desai, F.; Prasad, J.S.; Muthukumar, P.; Rahman, M.M. Thermochemical energy storage system for cooling and process heating applications: A review. Energy Convers. Manag. 2021, 229, 113617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 N’Tsoukpoe, K.E.; Liu, H.; Le Pierrès, N.; Luo, L. A review on longterm sorption solar energy storage. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2009, 13, 2385–2396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Tatsidjodoung, P.; Le Pierrès, N.; Luo, L. A review of potential materials for thermal energy storage in building applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2013, 18, 327–349. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 CotGores, J.; Castell, A.; Cabeza, L.F. Thermochemical energy storage and conversion: Astateoftheart review of the experimental research under practical conditions. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2012, 16, 5207–5224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Yu, N.; Wang, R.; Wang, L. Sorption thermal storage for solar energy. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2013, 39, 489–514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Solé, A.; Martorell, I.; Cabeza, L.F. State of the art on gas–Solid thermochemical energy storage systems and reactors for building applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 47, 386–398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 FopahLele, A.; Tamba, J.G. A review on the use of SrBr2·6H2O as a potential material for low temperature energy storage systems and building applications. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2017, 164, 175–187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Krese, G.; Koželj, R.; Butala, V.; Stritih, U. Thermochemical seasonal solar energy storage for heating and cooling of buildings. Energy Build. 2018, 164, 239–253. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Lizana, J.; Chacartegui, R.; BarriosPadura, A.; Ortiz, C. Advanced lowcarbon energy measures based on thermal energy storage in buildings: A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 82, 3705–3749. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kuznik, F.; Johannes, K.; Obrecht, C.; David, D. A review on recent developments in physisorption thermal energy storage for building applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 94, 576–586. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Chen, M.; Sun, X.; Christensen, R.N.; Skavdahl, I.; Utgikar, V.; Sabharwall, P. Dynamic behavior of a hightemperature printed circuit heat exchanger: Numerical modeling and experimental investigation. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2018, 135, 246–256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Dicaire, D.; Tezel, F.H. Use of adsorbents for thermal energy storage of solar or excess heat: Improvement of energy density. Int. J. Energy Res. 2013, 37, 1059–1068. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Haldorai, S.; Gurusamy, S.; Pradhapraj, M. A review on thermal energy storage systems in solar air heaters. Int. J. Energy Res. 2019, 43, 6061–6077. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Hongois, S. Stockage de Chaleur InterSaisonnier par Voie Thermochimique pour le Chauffage Solaire de la Maison Individuelle. Ph.D. Thesis, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France, 2012. [Google Scholar]
 Liu, F.; Dong, F.; Li, Y.; Jia, L. Study on the heating performance and optimal intermediate temperature of a series gas engine compressionabsorption heat pump system. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2018, 135, 34–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ma, T.; Ren, T.; Chen, H.; Zhu, Y.; Li, S.; Ji, G. Thermal performance of a solar high temperature thermochemical reactor powered by a solar simulator. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2019, 146, 881–888. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Cao, D.L.; Hong, G.; Le, A.T. Applying chemical heat storage to saving exhaust gas energy in diesel engines: Principle, design and experiment. J. Energy Storage 2020, 28, 101311. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kumar, A.; Shukla, S. A Review on thermal energy storage unit for solar thermal power plant application. Energy Procedia 2015, 74, 462–469. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Vasiliev, L.; Kanonchik, L.; Tsitovich, A. Adsorption system with heat pipe thermal control for mobile storage of gaseous fuel. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 2017, 120, 252–262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Jiang, H.; Qu, J.; Lu, R.Y.; Wang, J.A.J. Gridtorod flowinduced impact study for PWR fuel in reactor. Prog. Nucl. Energy 2016, 91, 355–361. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Graves, C.; Ebbesen, S.D.; Mogensen, M.B.; Lackner, K.S. Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO_{2} and H_{2}O with renewable or nuclear energy. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2011, 15, 1–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kastanya, D. DERMAGA—An alternative tool to generate random patternedchannelage in CANDU fuel management analyses part II: Robustness against varying basic pattern size. Prog. Nucl. Energy 2016, 91, 362–372. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Haeussler, A.; Abanades, S.; Julbe, A.; Jouannaux, J.; Cartoixa, B. Solar thermochemical fuel production from H_{2}O and CO_{2} splitting via twostep redox cycling of reticulated porous ceria structures integrated in a monolithic cavitytype reactor. Energy 2020, 201, 117649. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Mamani, V.; Gutiérrez, A.; Fernández, A.; Ushak, S. Industrial carnallitewaste for thermochemical energy storage application. Appl. Energy 2020, 265, 114738. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Xu, J.; Wang, R.; Li, Y. A review of available technologies for seasonal thermal energy storage. Sol. Energy 2014, 103, 610–638. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Golparvar, B.; Niazmand, H. Adsorption cooling systems for heavy trucks A/C applications driven by exhaust and coolant waste heats. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2018, 135, 158–169. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Hou, H.; Shao, G.; Yang, W.; Wong, W.Y. Onedimensional mesoporous inorganic nanostructures and their applications in energy, sensor, catalysis and adsorption. Prog. Mater. Sci. 2020, 113, 100671. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Petrushenko, I.; Petrushenko, K. Physical adsorption of hydrogen molecules on singlewalled carbon nanotubes and carbonboronnitrogen heteronanotubes: A comparative DFT study. Vacuum 2019, 167, 280–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Imponenti, L.; Albrecht, K.J.; Wands, J.W.; Sanders, M.; Jackson, G.S. Thermochemical energy storage in strontiumdoped calcium manganites for concentrating solar power applications. Sol. Energy 2017, 151, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Pan, Z.; Zhao, C. Gas–solid thermochemical heat storage reactors for hightemperature applications. Energy 2017, 130, 155–173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Lei, L.; Lan, T.; Li, Y.; Li, P.; Lin, X.; Liu, R.; Huang, Z.; Fen, X.; et al. Chemical vapor depositiongrown carbon nanotubes/graphene hybrids for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. FlatChem 2019, 15, 100091. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Janghel, D.; Karagadde, S.; Saha, S.K. Thermal performance analysis of phase change material based thermal storage system usineneralized numerical model with volumetric expansion and shrinkage. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2020, 180, 115826. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Cabeza, L.F.; Solé, A.; Fontanet, X.; Barreneche, C.; Jové, A.; Gallas, M.; Prieto, C.; Fernández, A.I. Thermochemical energy storage by consecutive reactions for higher efficient concentrated solar power plants (CSP): Proof of concept. Appl. Energy 2017, 185, 836–845. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Aydin, D.; Casey, S.P.; Riffat, S. The latest advancements on thermochemical heat storage systems. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 41, 356–367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Farcot, L.; Le Pierrès, N.; Fourmigué, J.F. Experimental investigation of a movingbed heat storage thermochemical reactor with SrBr_{2}/H_{2}O couple. J. Energy Storage 2019, 26, 101009. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ma, Z.; Bao, H.; Roskilly, A.P. Seasonal solar thermal energy storage using thermochemical sorption in domestic dwellings in the UK. Energy 2019, 166, 213–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Zhang, Y.; Wang, R. Sorption thermal energy storage: Concept, process, applications and perspectives. Energy Storage Mater. 2020, 27, 352–369. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Le Pierrès, N.; N’Tsoukpoe, K.E. Procédé de stockage de chaleur solaire intersaisonnier par absorption LiBrH2O. In Proceedings of the 20th Congrès Français de Mécanique, Besançon, France, 28 August–2 September 2011; p. 6. [Google Scholar]
 Ponshanmugakumar, A.; Rajavel, R. Experimental analysis of vapour absorption generator integrated with thermal energy storage system. Mater. Today Proc. 2019, 16, 1158–1167. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Gao, J.; Xu, Z.; Wang, R. Experimental study on a doublestage absorption solar thermal storage system with enhanced energy storage density. Appl. Energy 2020, 262, 114476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ibrahim, N.I.; Khan, M.M.A.; Mahbubul, I.; Saidur, R.; AlSulaiman, F.A. Experimental testing of the performance of a solar absorption cooling system assisted with icestorage for an office space. Energy Convers. Manag. 2017, 148, 1399–1408. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Borri, E.; Tafone, A.; Comodi, G.; Romagnoli, A. Improving liquefaction process of microgrid scale Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) through Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and absorption chiller. Energy Procedia 2017, 143, 699–704. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Berdiyeva, P.; Karabanova, A.; Makowska, M.; Johnsen, R.E.; Blanchard, D.; Hauback, B.C.; Deledda, S. Insitu neutron imaging study of NH_{3} absorption and desorption in SrCl_{2} within a heat storage prototype reactor. J. Energy Storage 2020, 29, 101388. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Razmi, A.; Soltani, M.; Torabi, M. Investigation of an efficient and environmentallyfriendly CCHP system based on CAES, ORC and compressionabsorption refrigeration cycle: Energy and exergy analysis. Energy Convers. Manag. 2019, 195, 1199–1211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kee, S.Y.; Wong, J.L.O.; Munusamy, Y.; Ong, K.S.; Choong, Y.C. Light absorptive polymeric formstable composite phase change material for thermal storage. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2020, 172, 114673. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Tafone, A.; Borri, E.; Comodi, G.; Broek, M.V.D.; Romagnoli, A. Liquid Air Energy Storage performance enhancement by means of organic rankine cycle and absorption chiller. Appl. Energy 2018, 228, 1810–1821. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Le Pierrès, N.; Huaylla, F.; Stutz, B.; Perraud, J. Longterm solar heat storage process by absorption with the KCOOH/H_{2}O couple: Experimental investigation. Energy 2017, 141, 1313–1323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Wu, W. Lowtemperature compressionassisted absorption thermal energy storage using ionic liquids. Energy Built Environ. 2020, 1, 139–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kaushik, S.; Lam, K.; Chandra, S.; Tomar, C. Mass and energy storage analysis of an absorption heat pump with simulated time dependent generator heat input. Energy Convers. Manag. 1982, 22, 183–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Mohamed, H.; Ben Brahim, A. Modeling of the absorption phase of a cycle with solar absorption using the couple NH_{3}–H_{2}O for insight energy storage. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 2017, 42, 8624–8630. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Guloglu, G.E.; Hamidi, Y.K.; Altan, M.C. Moisture absorption of composites with interfacial storage. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 2020, 134, 105908. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Qian, M.; Xu, C.; Gao, Y. Openair combustion synthesis of threedimensional graphene for oil absorption and energy storage. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 2018, 238239, 149–154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Wang, L.; Xiao, F.; Cui, B.; Hu, M.; Lu, T. Performance analysis of absorption thermal energy storage for distributed energy systems. Energy Procedia 2019, 158, 3152–3157. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ibrahim, N.I.; AlSulaiman, F.A.; Ani, F.N. Performance characteristics of a solar driven lithium bromidewater absorption chiller integrated with absorption energy storage. Energy Convers. Manag. 2017, 150, 188–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 De, R.K.; Ganguly, A. Performance comparison of solardriven single and doubleeffect LiBrwater vapor absorption system based cold storage. Therm. Sci. Eng. Prog. 2020, 17, 100488. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Hirmiz, R.; Lightstone, M.; Cotton, J. Performance enhancement of solar absorption cooling systems using thermal energy storage with phase change materials. Appl. Energy 2018, 223, 11–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ibrahim, N.I.; AlSulaiman, F.A.; Ani, F.N. Solar absorption systems with integrated absorption energy storage–A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 82, 1602–1610. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Leonzio, G. Solar systems integrated with absorption heat pumps and thermal energy storages: State of art. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2017, 70, 492–505. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Bi, Y.; Zang, G.; Qin, L.; Li, H.; Wang, H. Study on the characteristics of charging/discharging processes in threephase energy storage coupling in solar air conditioning system. Energy Build. 2019, 204, 109456. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Mehari, A.; Xu, Z.; Wang, R. Thermal energy storage using absorption cycle and system: A comprehensive review. Energy Convers. Manag. 2020, 206, 112482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 RodriguezHidalgo, M.; RodriguezAumente, P.; LecuonaNeumann, A.; Legrand, M. Thermochemical storage for renewable energies based on absorption: Getting a uniform injection into the grid. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2019, 146, 338–345. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Peng, X.; She, X.; Li, Y.; Ding, Y. Thermodynamic analysis of Liquid Air Energy Storage integrated witerial system of organic rankine and absorption refrigeration cycles driven by compression heat. Energy Procedia 2017, 142, 3440–3446. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Razmi, A.; Soltani, M.; Aghanajafi, C.; Torabi, M. Thermodynamic and economic investigation of a novel integration of the absorptionrecompression refrigeration system with compressed air energy storage (CAES). Energy Convers. Manag. 2019, 187, 262–273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Fernandes, M.; Gaspar, A.; Costa, V.; Costa, J.J.; Brites, G. Optimization of a thermal energy storage system provided with an adsorption module–A GenOpt application in a TRNSYS/MATLAB model. Energy Convers. Manag. 2018, 162, 90–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Wang, H.; Hao, Y. Thermodynamic study of solar thermochemical methane steam reforming with alternating H_{2} and CO_{2} permeation membranes reactors. Energy Procedia 2017, 105, 1980–1985. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Loni, R.; Pavlovic, S.; Bellos, E.; Tzivanidis, C.; AsliArdeh, E.A. Thermal and exergy performance of a nanofluidbased solar dish collector with spiral cavity receiver. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2018, 135, 206–217. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Zhang, M.; Wei, Z.; Wang, T.; Muhammad, S.; Zhu, J.; Liu, J.; Hu, J. Nickeliron layered double hydroxides and reduced graphene oxide composite with robust lithium ion adsorption ability for highcapacity energy storage systems. Electrochim. Acta 2019, 296, 190–197. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Smejkal, T.; Mikyška, J.; Fučík, R. Numerical modelling of adsorption and desorption of water vapor in zeolite 13X using a twotemperature model and mixedhybrid finite element method numerical solver. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 2020, 148, 119050. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Alby, D.; Salles, F.; Fullenwarth, J.; Zajac, J. On the use of metal cationexchanged zeolites in sorption thermochemical storage: Some practical aspects in reference to the mechanism of water vapor adsorption. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2018, 179, 223–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ng, S.W.L.; Yilmaz, G.; Ong, W.L.; Ho, G.W. Onestep activation towards spontaneous etching of hollow and hierarchical porous carbon nanospheres for enhanced pollutant adsorption and energy storage. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 2018, 220, 533–541. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Narayanan, S.; Yang, S.; Kim, H.; Wang, E.N. Optimization of adsorption processes for climate control and thermal energy storage. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 2014, 77, 288–300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ntsoane, M.L.; Jalali, A.; Römer, J.; Duewel, K.; Göller, C.; Kühn, R.; Mähne, K.; Geyer, M.; Sivakumar, D.; Mahajan, P.V. Performance evaluation of silica gelwater adsorption based cooling system for mango fruit storage in SubSaharan Africa. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 2019, 149, 195–199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Zhang, C.; Kong, R.; Wang, X.; Xu, Y.; Wang, F.; Ren, W.; Wang, Y.; Su, F.; Jiang, J.X. Porous carbons derived from hypercrosslinked porous polymers for gas adsorption and energy storage. Carbon 2017, 114, 608–618. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Schreiber, H.; Lanzerath, F.; Bardow, A. Predicting performance of adsorption thermal energy storage: From experiments to validated dynamic models. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2018, 141, 548–557. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Jia, H.; Zhang, H.; Wan, S.; Sun, J.; Xie, X.; Sun, L. Preparation of nitrogendoped porous carbon via adsorptiondoping for highly efficient energy storage. J. Power Sources 2019, 433, 226712. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Rani, S.; Padmanabhan, E.; Prusty, B.K. Review of gas adsorption in shales for enhanced methane recovery and CO_{2} storage. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 2019, 175, 634–643. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kaushal, I.; Saharan, P.; Kumar, V.; Sharma, A.K.; Umar, A. Superb sonoadsorption and energy storage potential of multifunctional AgBiochar composite. J. Alloy. Compd. 2019, 785, 240–249. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Zhang, Y.; Chen, H. Surface adsorption and encapsulated storage of H_{2} molecules in a cagelike (MgO)_{12} cluster. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 2018, 43, 16609–16616. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Olsson, E.; Hussain, T.; Karton, A.; Cai, Q. The adsorption and migration behavior of divalent metals (Mg, Ca, and Zn) on pristine and defective graphene. Carbon 2020, 163, 276–287. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Helaly, H.O.; Awad, M.M.; ElSharkawy, I.I.; Hamed, A.M. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the performance of adsorption heat storage system. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2019, 147, 10–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Brancato, V.; Gordeeva, L.G.; Grekova, A.D.; Sapienza, A.; Vasta, S.; Frazzica, A.; Aristov, Y.I. Water adsorption equilibrium and dynamics of LICL/MWCNT/PVA composite for adsorptive heat storage. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2019, 193, 133–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Lehmann, C.; Beckert, S.; Nonnen, T.; Gläser, R.; Kolditz, O.; Nagel, T. Water loading lift and heat storage density prediction of adsorption heat storage systems using DubininPolanyi theory—Comparison with experimental results. Appl. Energy 2017, 207, 274–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Bales, C. Laboratory Tests of Chemical Reactions and Prototype Sorption Storage Units: Report of B4 of Subtask B. A Report of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme. January 2008. Available online: http://www.ieashc.org/data/sites/1/publications/task32b4.pdf (accessed on 18 July 2021).
 Kerskes, H.; Mette, B.; Bertsch, F.; Asenbeck, S.; Drück, H. Chemical energy storage using reversible solid/gasreactions (CWS)—Results of the research project. Energy Procedia 2012, 30, 294–304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 N’Tsoukpoe, K.E.; Schmidt, T.; Rammelberg, H.U.; Watts, B.A.; Ruck, W.K. A systematic multistep screening of numerous salt hydrates for low temperature thermochemical energy storage. Appl. Energy 2014, 124, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Shao, H.; Nagel, T.; Roßkopf, C.; Linder, M.; Wörner, A.; Kolditz, O. Nonequilibrium thermochemical heat storage in porous media: Part 2—A 1D computational model for a calcium hydroxide reaction system. Energy 2013, 60, 271–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 De Valeria, M.K.; Michaelides, E.E.; Michaelides, D.N. Energy and thermal storage in clusters of gridindependent buildings. Energy 2020, 190, 116440. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Lim, K.W.; Peddigari, M.; Annapureddy, V.; Hwang, G.T.; Choi, J.J.; Kim, G.Y.; Yi, S.N.; Ryu, J. Energy storage characteristics of {001} oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin film grown by chemical solution deposition. Thin Solid Films 2018, 660, 434–438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Uebbing, J.; RihkoStruckmann, L.K.; Sundmacher, K. Exergetic assessment of CO_{2} methanation processes for the chemical storage of renewable energies. Appl. Energy 2019, 233234, 271–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Silakhori, M.; Jafarian, M.; Arjomandi, M.; Nathan, G.J. Experimental assessment of copper oxide for liquid chemical looping for thermal energy storage. J. Energy Storage 2019, 21, 216–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Liu, J.; Baeyens, J.; Deng, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, H. High temperature Mn_{2}O_{3}/Mn_{3}O_{4} and Co_{3}O_{4}/CoO systems for thermochemical energy storage. J. Environ. Manag. 2020, 267, 110582. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 Yu, C.; Fan, S.; Lang, X.; Wang, Y.; Li, G.; Wang, S. Hydrogen and chemical energy storage in gas hydrate at mild conditions. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 2020, 45, 14915–14921. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Cui, C.; Pu, Y. Improvement of energy storage density with trace amounts of ZrO_{2} additives fabricated by wetchemical method. J. Alloy. Compd. 2018, 747, 495–504. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Atinafu, D.G.; Wang, C.; Dong, W.; Chen, X.; Du, M.; Gao, H.; Wang, G. Insitu derived graphene from solid sodium acetate for enhanced photothermal conversion, thermal conductivity, and energy storage capacity of phase change materials. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2020, 205, 110269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Tesio, U.; Guelpa, E.; Verda, V. Integration of thermochemical energy storage in concentrated solar power. Part 1: Energy and economic analysis/optimization. Energy Convers. Manag. X 2020, 6, 100039. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Mehrpooya, M.; Pakzad, P. Introducing a hybrid mechanical—Chemical energy storage system: Process development and energy/exergy analysis. Energy Convers. Manag. 2020, 211, 112784. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Gao, J.; Tian, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X.; An, G. Investigation on bisalt chemisorption system for long term energy storage. Chem. Eng. Sci. 2020, 221, 115699. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Wang, Y.; Ji, L.; Li, B.; Wang, L.; Bai, Y.; Chen, H.; Ding, Y. Investigation on the thermal energy storage characteristics in a spouted bed based on different nozzle numbers. Energy Rep. 2020, 6, 127–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Brancato, V.; Calabrese, L.; Palomba, V.; Frazzica, A.; FullanaPuig, M.; Solé, A.; Cabeza, L.F. MgSO_{4}·7H_{2}O filled macro cellular foams: An innovative composite sorbent for thermochemical energy storage applications for solar buildings. Sol. Energy 2018, 173, 1278–1286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ding, H.; Song, Z.; Zhang, H.; Li, X. Niobiumbased oxide anodes toward fast and safe energy storage: A review. Mater. Today Nano 2020, 11, 100082. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Palys, M.J.; Daoutidis, P. Using hydrogen and ammonia for renewable energy storage: A geographically comprehensive technoeconomic study. Comput. Chem. Eng. 2020, 136, 106785. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Miller, H.A.; Lavacchi, A.; Vizza, F. Storage of renewable energy in fuels and chemicals through electrochemical reforming of bioalcohols. Curr. Opin. Electrochem. 2020, 21, 140–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Silakhori, M.; Jafarian, M.; Arjomandi, M.; Nathan, G.J. The energetic performance of a liquid chemical looping cycle with solar thermal energy storage. Energy 2019, 170, 93–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Li, B.; Li, Z.; Pang, Q.; Zhuang, Q.; Zhu, J.; Tsiakaras, P.; Shen, P.K. Synthesis and characterization of activated 3D graphene via catalytic growth and chemical activation for electrochemical energy storage in supercapacitors. Electrochim. Acta 2019, 324, 134878. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Li, S.; Liu, J.; Tan, T.; Nie, J.; Zhang, H. Optimization of LiNO_{3}–Mg(OH)_{2} composites as thermochemical energy storage materials. J. Environ. Manag. 2020, 262, 110258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 Funayama, S.; Takasu, H.; Zamengo, M.; Kariya, J.; Kim, S.T.; Kato, Y. Composite material for hightemperature thermochemical energy storage using calcium hydroxide and ceramic foam. Energy Storage 2019, 1, e53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 D’Ans, P.; Hohenauer, W.; Courbon, E. Monitoring of thermal properties of a composite material used in thermochemical heat storage. In Proceedings of the Eurotherm Seminar 99—Advances in Thermal Energy Storage, Lleida, Spain, 28–30 May 2014; pp. 1–9. [Google Scholar]
 Wang, J.X.; Li, Y.Z.; Mao, Y.F.; Li, E.H.; Ning, X.; Ji, X.Y. Comparative study of the heating surface impact on porousmaterialinvolved spray system for electronic cooling—An experimental approach. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2018, 135, 537–548. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Wu, S.; Li, T.; Yan, T.; Wang, R. Advanced thermochemical resorption heat transformer for highefficiency energy storage and heat transformation. Energy 2019, 175, 1222–1233. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 MalleyErnewein, A.; Lorente, S. Constructal design of thermochemical energy storage. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 2019, 130, 1299–1306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Frazzica, A.; Brancato, V. Verification of hydrothermal stability of adsorbent materials for thermal energy storage. Int. J. Energy Res. 2019, 43, 6161–6170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Dizaji, H.B.; Hosseini, H. A review of material screening in pure and mixedmetal oxide thermochemical energy storage (TCES) systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018, 98, 9–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Van Helden, W. European Projects on Seasonal Solar Thermal Storage Applications; AEE—Institute for Sustainable Technologies: Gleisdorf, Austria, 2014. [Google Scholar]
 Van Helden, W. Compact thermal storage R&D in IEA T4224 and EU COMTES project. In Proceedings of the IEA ECES–Energy Conservation through Energy Storage, Annex Proposal Workshop, Paris, France, 18–19 September 2012. [Google Scholar]
 Hauer, A. Adsorption systems for TES—Design and demonstration projects. In Proceedings of the Properties and Applications of Nanocrystalline Alloys from Amorphous Precursors, Budmerice, Slovakia, 9–15 June 2003; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2007; pp. 409–427. [Google Scholar]
 Lu, Y.; Wang, R.; Zhang, M.; Jiangzhou, S. Adsorption cold storage system with zeolite—Water working pair used for locomotive air conditioning. Energy Convers. Manag. 2003, 44, 1733–1743. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Schreiber, H.; Graf, S.; Lanzerath, F.; Bardow, A. Adsorption thermal energy storage for cogeneration in industrial batch processes: Experiment, dynamic modeling and system analysis. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2015, 89, 485–493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Knez, Ž.; Novak, Z. Adsorption of water vapor on silica, alumina, and their mixed oxide aerogels. J. Chem. Eng. Data 2001, 46, 858–860. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kohler, T.; Biedermann, T.; Müller, K. Experimental study of MgCl_{2} ⋅ 6H_{2}O as thermochemical energy storage material. Energy Technol. 2018, 6, 1935–1940. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Seiler, M.; Kühn, A.; Ziegler, F.; Wang, X. Sustainable cooling strategies using new chemical system solutions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2013, 52, 16519–16546. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Guerrero, M.B.; Sarrion, B.; Perejon, A.; SanchezJimenez, P.E.; PerezMaqueda, L.A.; Valverde, J.M. Largescale hightemperature solar energy storage using natural minerals. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 2017, 168, 14–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ristić, A.; Maučec, D.; Henninger, S.K.; Kaučič, V. New twocomponent water sorbent CaCl_{2}FeKIL_{2} for solar thermal energy storage. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2012, 164, 266–272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Xu, C.; Ju, X.; Yu, Z.; Ma, X. A review of salt hydratebased sorption technologies for longterm thermal energy storage. Chin. Sci. Bull. 2015, 60, 3569–3579. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Zettl, B.; Englmair, G.; Steinmaurer, G. Development of a revolving drum reactor for opensorption heat storage processes. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2014, 70, 42–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Liu, D.; XinFeng, L.; Bo, L.; SiQuan, Z.; Yan, X. Progress in thermochemical energy storage for concentrated solar power: A review. Int. J. Energy Res. 2018, 42, 4546–4561. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kodama, T.; Bellan, S.; Gokon, N.; Cho, H.S. Particle reactors for solar thermochemical processes. Sol. Energy 2017, 156, 113–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Abanades, S.; André, L. Design and demonstration of a high temperature solarheated rotary tube reactor for continuous particles calcination. Appl. Energy 2018, 212, 1310–1320. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Li, T.; Wang, R.; Kiplagat, J.; Wang, L.; Oliveira, R. A conceptual design and performance analysis of a tripleeffect solidgas thermochemical sorption refrigeration system with internal heat recovery. Chem. Eng. Sci. 2009, 64, 3376–3384. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Schmoldt, A.; Benthe, H.F.; Haberland, G. Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1975, 24, 1639–1641. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Salviati, S.; Carosio, F.; Saracco, G.; Fina, A. Hydrated salt/graphite/polyelectrolyte organicinorganic hybrids for efficient thermochemical storage. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 420. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Leng, G.; Navarro, H.; Yu, Q.; Wellio, G.; Qiao, G.; Li, C.; Huang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, G.; Meng, Y.; et al. Design of composite materials/devices for thermal storage—A critical review. Veruscript Funct. Nanomater. 2018, 2, 1–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Alonso, E.; Romero, M. Review of experimental investigation on directly irradiated particles solar reactors. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 41, 53–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Lu, Y.R.; Nikrityuk, P. A fixedbed reactor for energy storage in chemicals (E2C): Proof of concept. Appl. Energy 2018, 228, 593–607. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Ranjha, Q.; Oztekin, A. Numerical analyses of threedimensional fixed reaction bed for thermochemical energy storage. Renew. Energy 2017, 111, 825–835. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 FopahLele, A.; Kuznik, F.; Osterland, T.; Ruck, W.K. Thermal synthesis of a thermochemical heat storage with heat exchanger optimization. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2016, 101, 669–677. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Tabatabaei, M.; Aghbashlo, M.; Dehhaghi, M.; Panahi, H.K.S.; Mollahosseini, A.; Hosseini, M.; Soufiyan, M.M. Reactor technologies for biodiesel production and processing: A review. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2019, 74, 239–303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Melchior, T.; Perkins, C.; Lichty, P.; Weimer, A.W.; Steinfeld, A. Solardriven biochar gasification in a particleflow reactor. Chem. Eng. Process. Process. Intensif. 2009, 48, 1279–1287. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Melchior, T.; Perkins, C.; Weimer, A.W.; Steinfeld, A. A cavityreceiver containing a tubular absorber for hightemperature thermochemical processing using concentrated solar energy. Int. J. Therm. Sci. 2008, 47, 1496–1503. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Wieckert, C.; Palumbo, R.; Frommherz, U. A twocavity reactor for solar chemical processes: Heat transfer model and application to carbothermic reduction of ZnO. Energy 2004, 29, 771–787. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Nick, A.; Peter, K. Solar Thermochemical energy storage. In Chemical Engineering Process; American Institute of Chemical Engineers: New York, NY, USA, 2017; pp. 19–43. ISSN 03607275. [Google Scholar]
 Bush, H.E.; Datta, R.; Loutzenhiser, P.G. Aluminumdoped strontium ferrites for a twostep solar thermochemical air separation cycle: Thermodynamic characterization and cycle analysis. Sol. Energy 2019, 188, 775–786. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kodama, T.; Gokon, N.; Yamamoto, R. Thermochemical twostep water splitting by ZrO_{2}supported Ni_{x}Fe_{3}−_{x}O_{4} for solar hydrogen production. Sol. Energy 2008, 82, 73–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Koepf, E.; Advani, S.; Prasad, A.K.; Steinfeld, A. Experimental investigation of the carbothermal reduction of ZnO usineamdown, gravityfed solar reactor. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2015, 54, 8319–8332. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Zgraggen, A.; Haueter, P.; Trommer, D.; Romero, M.; DeJesus, J.; Steinfeld, A. Hydrogen production by steamgasification of petroleum coke using concentrated solar power—II Reactor design, testing, and modeling. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 2006, 31, 797–811. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Steinfeld, A. Solar thermal production of zinc and syngas via combined ZnOreduction and CH_{4}reforming processes. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 1995, 20, 793–804. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Agrafiotis, C.; Roeb, M.; Sattler, C. A review on solar thermal syngas production via redox pairbased water/carbon dioxide splitting thermochemical cycles. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2015, 42, 254–285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Schmidt, M.; Gollsch, M.; Giger, F.; Grün, M.; Linder, M. Development of a moving bed pilot plant for thermochemical energy storage with CaO/Ca(OH). AIP Conf. Proc. 2016, 1734, 50041. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Li, K.; Wu, H.; Wei, J.; Qiu, G.; Wei, C.; Cheng, D.; Zhong, L. Simultaneous decarburization, nitrification and denitrification (SDCND) in coking wastewater treatment using an integrated fluidizedbed reactor. J. Environ. Manag. 2019, 252, 109661. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 Vidal, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Denk, T. A 100 kW cavityreceiver reactor with an integrated twostep thermochemical cycle: Thermal performance under solar transients. Renew. Energy 2020, 153, 270–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Pilehvar, A.; Esteki, M.; Ansarifar, G.; Hedayat, A. Stability analysis and parametric study of natural circulation integrated selfpressurized water reactor. Ann. Nucl. Energy 2020, 139, 107279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Shkatulov, A.; Houben, J.; Fischer, H.; Huinink, H. Stabilization of K_{2}CO_{3} in vermiculite for thermochemical energy storage. Renew. Energy 2020, 150, 990–1000. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 GonzalezTineo, P.A.; DuránHinojosa, U.; DelgadilloMirquez, L.R.; MezaEscalante, E.R.; GortáresMoroyoqui, P.; UlloaMercado, R.G.; SerranoPalacios, D. Performance improvement of an integrated anaerobicaerobic hybrid reactor for the treatment of swine wastewater. J. Water Process. Eng. 2020, 34, 101164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Gabriel, K.; Finney, L.; Dolloso, P. Preliminary results of the integrated hydrolysis reactor in the CuCl hydrogen production cycle. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 2019, 44, 9743–9752. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Xing, W.; Zhang, W.; Li, D.; Li, J.; Jia, F.; Cui, Y.; Ren, F. An integrated O/A twostage packedbed reactor (INTPBR) for total nitrogen removal from low organic carbon wastewater. Chem. Eng. J. 2017, 328, 894–903. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Hu, C.; Wang, M.S.; Chen, C.H.; Chen, Y.R.; Huang, P.H.; Tung, K.L. Phosphorusdoped gC3N4 integrated photocatalytic membrane reactor for wastewater treatment. J. Membr. Sci. 2019, 580, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Hao, R.; Wang, X.; Mao, X.; Tian, B.; Zhao, Y.; Yuan, B.; Tao, Z.; Shen, Y. An integrated dualreactor system for simultaneous removal of SO_{2} and NO: Factors assessment, reaction mechanism and application prospect. Fuel 2018, 220, 240–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Fernández, J.; Marín, P.; Díez, F.V.; Ordóñez, S. Combustion of coal mine ventilation air methane in a regenerative combustor with integrated adsorption: Reactor design and optimization. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2016, 102, 167–175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Shao, Y.; Jin, B. Coalfueled separated gasification chemical looping combustion under autothermal condition in a twostage reactor system. Chem. Eng. J. 2020, 390, 124641. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Kiss, A.A. Versatile biodiesel production by catalytic separative reactors. In Computer Aided Chemical Engineering; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2009; Volume 27, pp. 1689–1694. [Google Scholar]
 Baloch, M.; Akunna, J.; Kierans, M.; Collier, P. Structural analysis of anaerobic granules in a phase separated reactor by electron microscopy. Bioresour. Technol. 2008, 99, 922–929. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Criado, Y.; Alonso, M.; Abanades, J.C.; AnxionnazMinvielle, Z. Conceptual process design of a CaO/Ca(OH)_{2} thermochemical energy storage system using fluidized bed reactors. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2014, 73, 1087–1094. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Kasesaz, Y.; Bavarnegin, E.; Golshanian, M.; Khajeali, A.; Jarahi, H.; Mirvakili, S.; Khalafi, H. BNCT project at Tehran Research Reactor: Current and prospective plans. Prog. Nucl. Energy 2016, 91, 107–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Wyttenbach, J.; Bougard, J.; Descy, G.; Skrylnyk, O.; Courbon, E.; Frère, M.; Bruyat, F. Performances and modelling of a circular moving bed thermochemical reactor for seasonal storage. Appl. Energy 2018, 230, 803–815. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Li, W.; Li, X.; Peng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Tu, J. Experimental and numerical investigations on heat transfer in stratified subsurface materials. Appl. Therm. Eng. 2018, 135, 228–237. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Straits Research. Thermal Energy Storage Market: Information by Storage Material, Technology, Application, and EndUse—Forecast Till 2026; Straits Research: New York, NY, USA, 2019; Available online: https://straitsresearch.com/report/thermalenergystoragemarket/ (accessed on 18 July 2021).
 Zhang, X.; Li, M.; Shi, W.; Wang, B.; Li, X. Experimental investigation on charging and discharging performance of absorption thermal energy storage system. Energy Convers. Manag. 2014, 85, 425–434. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Fumey, B.; Weber, R.; Gantenbein, P.; DaguenetFrick, X.; Williamson, T.; Dorer, V. Closed sorption heat storage based on aqueous sodium hydroxide. Energy Procedia 2014, 48, 337–346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
 Chen, C.; Li, Y.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, S.; Jin, W. Design of a methanation reactor for producing hightemperature supercritical carbon dioxide in solar thermochemical energy storage. Sol. Energy 2018, 176, 220–229. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Edwards, S.E.; Materić, V. Calcium looping in solar power generation plants. Sol. Energy 2012, 86, 2494–2503. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 Wong, B. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrating Power; General Atomics: San Diego, CA, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
 Lin, J.; Zhao, Q.; Huang, H.; Mao, H.; Liu, Y.; Xiao, Y. Applications of lowtemperature thermochemical energy storage systems for salt hydrates based on material classification: A review. Sol. Energy 2021, 214, 149–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 N’Tsoukpoe, K.E.; Osterland, T.; Opel, O.; Ruck, W.K. Cascade thermochemical storage with internal condensation heat recovery for better energy and exergy efficiencies. Appl. Energy 2016, 181, 562–574. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
 N’Tsoukpoe, K.E.; Kuznik, F. A reality check on longterm thermochemical heat storage for household applications. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2021, 139, 110683. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Author(s)  Highlights  Refs 

N’Tsoukpoe et al., (2009); Tatsidjodoung et al., (2013) 
 [5,6] 
CotGores et al., (2012) 
 [7] 
Yu. et al., (2013) 
 [8] 
Sole et al., (2015); FopahLele and Tamba (2017) 
 [9,10] 
Krese et al., (2018) 
 [11] 
Lizana et al., (2018) 
 [12] 
Kuznik et al., (2018) 
 [13] 
Sunku Prasad et al., (2019) 
 [3] 
Desai et al., (2020) 
 [4] 
Adsorption  

Material  Operating Temperatures  Energy Density of the Bed  Prototype Energy Density  Storage Capacity kWh  Discharge Power kW  Discharge Time h  References 
Mesoporous silicates  Charge: 88 °C Discharge: 42 °C  119  52.3  27.4 (808 kg of anhydrous silica gel).  2.87  9.5  [118] 
Charge: 88 °C Discharge: 42 °C  50  33.3  13  0.5–1  13–26  [6,121]  
Charge: 180 °C Discharge: 30 °C  180  57.8  1  0.8–1.8  0.56–1.25  [6,122]  
Zeolite 4A–H_{2}O  Charge: 180 °C Discharge: 35 °C  160  120  12 kWh (70 kg of anhydrous 4A zeolite)  1–1.5  8–12  [6] 
Zeolite 13X–H_{2}O  Charge: 130 °C Discharge: 65 °C  124  NA  1300  135  9.6  [121,123] 
Zeolite H_{2}O  Charge: 135 °C Discharge:140 °C  NA  NA  2400 (14 t of dehydrated zeolite)  NA  10  [124] 
Zeolite H_{2}O  Charge: 180 °C Discharge: 60–50 °C  140–220  NA  NA  134  NA  [29,118,125] 
Activated carbon Methanol  Charge: 95 °C Discharge: 35 °C  60 (Simulated, bed energy density)  NA  NA  NA  NA  [126,127] 
Absorption  
NaOH/H_{2}O  Charge:100–150 °C Discharge: 40–65 °C  250  5  8.9  1  8.9  [41] 
LiCl/H_{2}O  Charge: 46–87 °C Discharge: 30 °C  253  85  35  8  4.4  [84] 
CaCl_{2}/H_{2}O  Charge: 70–80 °C Discharge: 21 °C  NA  116 (data from simulations)  15  0.03 −0.560  27–500  [121] 
LiBr/H_{2}O  Charge: 75–90 °C Discharge: 30–38 °C  251  NA  8  1  8  [89,128] 
CaCl_{2}/H_{2}O  Charge: 95 °C Discharge: 35 °C  NA  200 (Simulation, prototype energy density)  NA  NA  NA  [8] 
Reaction Equations  Operating Conditions °C  Heat Storage Density  Characterization Level 

MgSO_{4}·7H_{2}O → MgSO_{4} + 7H_{2}O  Charge: 122–150 Discharge: 122  1512 of MgSO_{4} (theoretical)  Material scale ECN project: Characterization, experimental tests, a sample of 10 mg 
MgCl_{2}·6H_{2}O → MgCl_{2}·2H_{2}O + 4H_{2}O  Charge: 115–130 Discharge: 35  2170.8 of MgCl_{2}·2H_{2}O  Material scale IEC Project: Material characterization. Sample of 250 mg. Stabilization with zeolite 4A is to be further considered. 
MgCl_{2}·6H_{2}O → MgCl_{2}·H_{2}O + 5H_{2}O  Charge: 150 Discharge: 30–50    Material scale ECN project: Material characterization, a sample of 300 g of material. 
CuSO_{4}·5H_{2}O → CuSO_{4}·H_{2}O + 5H_{2}O  Discharge: 40–60 (heat supply at T ≥ 40 to ignite discharge)  2066.4 of CuSO_{4}·H_{2}O (theoretical)  ITW project: Material characterization, a sample of 100 mg 
CaCl_{2}·2.3H_{2}O → CaCl_{2} + 2.3H_{2}O  Charge: 150 Discharge (temperature lift): T = 6.2 (reactor and evaporator both at 25) T = 10 (reactor at 50 and evaporator at 10)    ECN project: Material characterization, a sample of 40 g 
Bentonite + CaCl_{2}  Discharge: 35  667 of composite material  ITW Project: Material characterization 
Kal(SO_{4})_{2}·12H_{2}O → Kal(SO_{4})_{2}·3H_{2}O + 3H_{2}O  Charge: 65 Discharge: 25  864 of Kal(SO_{4})_{2}·3H_{2}O  Reactor scale: PROMES CEAINES Project, 25 kg of Kal(SO_{4})_{2}·12H_{2}O 
Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}·18H_{2}O → Al_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}·5H_{2}O + 13H_{2}O  Charge: 150 Discharge (temperature lift): T = 9.8 (reactor and evaporator both at 25) T = 10 (reactor at 50 and evaporator at 10)    Reactor scale. ECN Project: Sample of 40 g 
Na_{2}S·5H_{2}O → Na_{2}S·1.5H_{2}O + 4.5H_{2}O  Charge: 83 Discharge: 35  2808 of Na_{2}S·1.5H_{2}O  Reactor scale, ECN project: SWEAT prototype, 3 kg of material. 
SrBr_{2}·6H_{2}O → SrBr_{2}·H_{2}O + 5H_{2}O  Charge: 70–80 Discharge: 35  216 of SrBr_{2}·H_{2}O  Reactor scale, PROMES CEA INES Project: SOLUX 
CaCl_{2}·2H_{2}O → CaCl_{2}·H_{2}O + H_{2}O  Charge: 95 Discharge: 35  720 of CaCl_{2}·H_{2}O  Reactor scale, BEMS: a theoretical study 
Reaction Equations  Reaction Temperature, °C  Energy Storage Density  Advantages  Drawbacks 

Ammonia decomposition material ${\mathrm{NH}}_{3}\leftrightharpoons \frac{1}{2}{\mathrm{N}}_{2}+\frac{3}{2}{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$  400–700  67 kJ·mol^{−1} 


Inorganic hydroxide material $\mathrm{Ca}{(\mathrm{OH})}_{2}\leftrightharpoons \mathrm{CaO}+{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$  350–900  300 kWh·m^{−3} 


Inorganic hydroxide material $\mathrm{Mg}{(\mathrm{OH})}_{2}\leftrightharpoons \mathrm{MgO}+{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$  100–167  380 kWh·m^{−3}  
Methane reforming material ${\mathrm{CH}}_{4}+{\mathrm{CO}}_{2}\leftrightharpoons 2\mathrm{CO}+2{\mathrm{H}}_{2}$  700–860  247 kWh·m^{−3} 


Methane reforming material ${\mathrm{CH}}_{4}+{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}\leftrightharpoons \mathrm{CO}+3{\mathrm{H}}_{2}$  600–950  250 kWh·m^{−3}  
Carbonate decomposition material ${\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}\leftrightharpoons \mathrm{CaO}+{\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$  700–1000  692 kWh·m^{−3} 


Metal hydride material ${\mathrm{MgH}}_{2}\leftrightharpoons \mathrm{Mg}+{\mathrm{H}}_{2}$  250–500  75 kJ·mol^{−1} 


Redox material $2{\mathrm{BaO}}_{2}\leftrightharpoons 2\mathrm{BaO}+{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$  127–1027  77 kJ·mol^{−1} 


Redox material $2{\mathrm{Co}}_{3}{\mathrm{O}}_{4}\leftrightharpoons 6\mathrm{CoO}+{\mathrm{O}}_{2}$  700–850  205 kJ·mol^{−1} 
Dashboard 1: Open System  Dashboard 2: Closed System 

Kinetic equation $\begin{array}{c}\frac{\partial \mathsf{\alpha}}{\partial \mathrm{t}}={\displaystyle \sum}_{\mathrm{i}=1}^{\mathrm{f}}{\mathrm{A}}_{\mathrm{i}}\xb7\mathrm{exp}\left(\frac{{\mathrm{E}}_{\mathrm{i}}}{\mathrm{RT}}\right)\xb7{\mathrm{f}}_{\mathrm{i}}\left({\mathsf{\alpha}}_{\mathrm{i}}\right)\xb7\left(1\frac{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{i}}}{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{eq}}}\right)\end{array}$ Mass equation $\left(1{\epsilon}_{s}\right)\frac{\partial {\rho}_{\mathrm{s}}}{\partial \mathrm{t}}={\rho}_{\mathrm{s}}\frac{\partial \alpha}{\partial \mathrm{t}}\left(\mathrm{solid}\right)$ ${\epsilon}_{s}\frac{\partial {\rho}_{v}}{\partial \mathrm{t}}={S}_{\mathrm{w}}\nabla \left({\rho}_{v}\overrightarrow{u}\right)+{\mathrm{D}}_{\mathrm{g}}\Delta {\rho}_{v}\left(\mathrm{gas}\right)$ $\frac{\partial}{\partial \mathrm{t}}\left({\epsilon}_{s}{\rho}_{\mathrm{air}}\right)+\nabla \left({\rho}_{\mathrm{air}}\overrightarrow{u}\right)={S}_{\mathrm{w}}\left(\mathrm{moist}\mathrm{air}\mathrm{mixture}\right)$ Energy equation $\left({\mathsf{\rho}}_{\mathrm{s}}{\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{p},\mathrm{s}}+{\mathsf{\epsilon}}_{\mathrm{s}}{\mathsf{\rho}}_{\mathrm{air}}{\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{p},\mathrm{air}}\right)\frac{\partial \mathrm{T}}{\partial \mathrm{t}}=\nabla ({\mathsf{\lambda}}_{\mathrm{eff}}\xb7\nabla \mathrm{T}){\mathsf{\rho}}_{\mathrm{air}}{\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{p},\mathrm{air}}\overrightarrow{u}\nabla \mathrm{T}{S}_{\mathrm{w}}\frac{\Delta {\mathrm{h}}_{\mathrm{r}}^{0}}{\mathrm{v}}$  Kinetic equation $\begin{array}{c}\frac{\partial \mathsf{\alpha}}{\partial \mathrm{t}}={\displaystyle \sum}_{\mathrm{i}=1}^{\mathrm{f}}{\mathrm{A}}_{\mathrm{i}}\xb7\mathrm{exp}\left(\frac{{\mathrm{E}}_{\mathrm{i}}}{\mathrm{RT}}\right)\xb7{\mathrm{f}}_{\mathrm{i}}\left({\mathsf{\alpha}}_{\mathrm{i}}\right)\xb7\left(1\frac{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{i}}}{{\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{eq}}}\right)\end{array}$ Mass equation $\left(1{\epsilon}_{s}\right)\frac{\partial {\rho}_{\mathrm{s}}}{\partial \mathrm{t}}={\rho}_{\mathrm{s}}\frac{\partial \alpha}{\partial \mathrm{t}}$ ${\epsilon}_{s}\frac{\partial {\rho}_{v}}{\partial \mathrm{t}}=\mathrm{v}{S}_{\mathrm{w}}\nabla \left({\rho}_{v}\overrightarrow{u}\right)+{\mathrm{D}}_{\mathrm{g}}\Delta {\rho}_{v}$ $\alpha =\frac{{\mathrm{m}}_{0}\mathrm{m}}{{\mathrm{m}}_{0}{\mathrm{m}}_{\mathrm{f}}}\left(\mathrm{experiment}\right)$ $\alpha =\frac{{\mathrm{m}}_{0}\mathrm{m}}{{\mathrm{m}}_{0}{\mathrm{m}}_{\mathrm{f}}}\left(\mathrm{simulation}\right)$ Energy equation ${\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{p},\mathrm{s}}\left(1{\mathsf{\epsilon}}_{\mathrm{s}}\right){\mathsf{\rho}}_{\mathrm{s}}\frac{\partial \mathrm{T}}{\partial \mathrm{t}}=\nabla ({\mathsf{\lambda}}_{\mathrm{eff}}\xb7\nabla \mathrm{T}){\mathsf{\rho}}_{v}{\mathrm{C}}_{\mathrm{p},v}\overrightarrow{u}\nabla \mathrm{T}+\frac{{\mathsf{\rho}}_{\mathrm{s}}}{{\mathrm{M}}_{\mathrm{s}}}\frac{\partial \alpha}{\partial \mathrm{t}}\Delta {\mathrm{h}}_{\mathrm{r}}^{0}$ 
Classification  Reactors  Subclassification  Reactor Description  Reactor Efficiency  Whole System Efficiency  Prototypes References 

System involved  Indirect reactor    The material reservoir is directly heated to either heat the material or the heat transfer fluid by conduction.  21—41%  10–20%  [140,141,142,143] 
Direct reactor  Open reactor  Reactants are heated by heat source input through an opened receiver aperture. Moist air atmospheric acts as a mass and heat carrier fluid. Use of gas diffusers to supply or collect the moist air (Figure 6 and Figure 7). Use of external heat exchanger to carry out the heat.  25–50%  15–35%  [144,145]  
Closed reactor  Reactants are heated by heat source input through a closed receiver aperture and the system is isolated from the atmospheric environment. Use of a gas diffuser and an internal heat exchanger to collect or supply the heat of the reaction. An evaporator is required to generate steam for the hydration phase and a heat source (Figure 8)  40–64%  15–40%  [146,147,148,149]  
Reactors type  Stacked bed reactor  Fixed bed reactor Mobile bed reactor Rotary bed reactor  The material is packed inside the reactor heated by air/HTF flowing through the material bed/heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is used to carry out the heat of the reaction, and the material is replaced after full conversion is achieved. The HTF can flow cocurrent upflow/downflow or countercurrent.  12–69%  12–42%  [26,127,130,145,150] 
Fluidized bed reactor  Vibrated bed reactor Blown bed reactor  The material is fed in the reactor and the fluid is fed through granular solid material. The high velocity of the fluid generates a suspension of material particles that act as if they were a fluid, which increases the quality of the heat transfer (Figure 9).  15–75%  20–60%  
System components  Separate reactor  Dissociation between the thermal power and the storage capacity. There is no need for a steam or heat exchanger integrated into the reactor. Only the required amount of reactant is heated.  28–75%  20–65%  [26,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162,163]  
Integrated reactor  Two phases reactor  Contains the material and the sorption pair reactant (air or steam). Need of heat exchanger to carry out the heat of the reaction.  14–65%  15–55%  [127,164,165,166]  
Three phases reactor  Contains the material and the sorption pair reactant (air or steam). The addition of a second working fluid is disconnected from the other and acts as a heat exchanger. Addition of material transport system.  14–85%  15–65% 
Operating Circuit  Operating Pressure  Heat and Mass Transfers and Heat Storage  Design and Dimensioning 

Closed system  The necessity of an evaporator to produce steam during hydration reaction 
 Strong technological constraints and manufacturing for the reactor and the evapo/condenser design. 
Open system  The steam is provided by moist air coming from the environment 


Investigation (Authors) & Years  Nature and Purpose  Storage Process  Progress & Contribution  Storage Materials  Reactor Type  Storage Density/ Storage Temperature  Descriptions  Refs. 

Zhang et al., (2014) Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2020)  Space heating and domestic hot water Labscale  Absorption  Singlestage absorption; Multiple functions using: production of child water at 7 °C, heating water at 43 °C for space heating and domestic hot water at 65 °C  $\mathrm{LiBr}/{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$  Integrated  42, 88, and 110 $\mathrm{kWh}\xb7{\mathrm{m}}^{3},$ respectively for child, heating, and hot water  Single or multiple storage tanks (Two or more) can be integrated with the absorption chiller/heat pump. Both the refrigerant and solution might be stored simultaneously. The refrigerant storage is in association with a condenser. The weak solution storage is in association with an absorber, and the strong solution is in association with the generator.  [43,169] 
French National Research Agency (2017)  Space heating Reactor scale, prototype, commercial  Absorption  Development of lowtemperature heat storage system  $\mathrm{KCOOH}/{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$  Closed  ${\mathrm{T}}_{\mathrm{max}}$ = 60 °C  Four main components: a desorber, an absorber, a condenser, and an evaporator, Two solution storage tanks (for the diluted and concentrated solution) and an absorbate storage tank. The solution can crystalize in the solution storage tank in this process. A sandwich grooved vertical plate configuration was then chosen for the heat exchanger  [50] 
EMPA, COMTES (2014)  Space heating Reactor scale, prototype, commercial  Absorption  Development of commercial prototype energy storage system Achievement of an increase in volumetric energy density compared to hot water storage  $\mathrm{NaOH}/{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$  Closed  250 $\mathrm{kWh}\xb7{\mathrm{m}}^{3}$  Two chambers are connected Chamber 1 contains the sorbent and functions as desorber during charging and as absorber during discharging. Chamber 2 works as condenser and evaporator, respectively, containing the sorbate.  [170] 
FopahLele (2015)  Numerical investigation Space heating  Adsorption  Modeling of the charging and discharging phase of a storage system with low thermal energy. Study of the influence of the performance of parameters such as temperature, pressure, and heat transfer coefficient on the charging process. 3D view of the heat transfer and the behaviors of the reactor during the process.  ${\mathrm{SrBr}}_{2}\xb76{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$  Closed  531.77 $\mathrm{kWh}\xb7{\mathrm{m}}^{3}$  Numerical analysis of two types of heat exchanger: platefin and helical coil heat exchangers embedded in a ${\mathrm{SrBr}}_{2}\xb76{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$. A reactor based on a honeycomb heat exchanger concept was design. The model is solved with the COMSOL Multiphysics software. The analytic results were implemented on a lab scale and prototype for validation of the model.  [138] 
Q. Ranjha (2017)  Numerical investigation Industrial process  Adsorption  Heat and mass transfer 3D simulation using a novel structure of reactor with $\mathrm{Ca}{\left(\mathrm{OH}\right)}_{2}/\mathrm{CaO}$ powders. Optimization technic for selecting the appropriate structure of the reactor.  $\mathrm{Ca}{\left(\mathrm{OH}\right)}_{2}/\mathrm{CaO}$  Closed  ${\mathrm{T}}_{\mathrm{max}}$ = 550 °C  Indirectly heated fixed reaction beds of circular and rectangular crosssections; heat transfer fluid could flow in cocurrent, countercurrent, or crossflow to the reaction gas; COMSOL Multiphysics software is used for the simulation of the reactor.  [137] 
COMTES (2012)  Labscale prototype Space heating  Adsorption Absorption  Development of liquid and solid sorption systems for seasonal heat storage purposes  Zeolite 13XBF  Closed fixed bed  ${\mathrm{T}}_{\mathrm{max}}$ = 75 °C  Closed modular solid sorption system with an additional backup heater; prototype with a reactor of approximately 300 L and 164 kg.  [117] 
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2017)  Pilotscale Space heating  Adsorption  Locomotive air conditioning system enhancement  Zeolite 13X  Closed  ${\mathrm{T}}_{\mathrm{max}}$ = 125 °C  Closed sorption system; the heat source is provided by hightemperature gas exhausted from an internal combustion engine; use of one adsorber and a cold storage tank; the cooling effect is transferred to the cabin by chilled water.  [119] 
Lauren Farcot et al., (2019)  Building heating  Adsorption  Study of the impact of the air humidity at the reactor inlet on the reactor performances. The feasibility of continuous thermochemical heat storage in a moving bed reactor with hydrated salt.  ${\mathrm{SrBr}}_{2}\xb7{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$/ ${\mathrm{SrBr}}_{2}\xb76{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$  Open moving bed  $\mathrm{T}$ = 41 °C  Moving bed reactor with a wall in stainless steel to avoid corrosion. The air diffuser and collector are separated from the reactor by stainless steel. The crosssection of the reactor can be adjusted (reduced) by adding stainless steel walls along with the mesh. A stainlesssteel reservoir receives the salt that falls from the rotary valve at the bottom of the reactor. Air can be flown through the reactor at a temperature between 0 and 100 °C.  [38] 
Abanades (2018)  Industrial process  Chemical  Design and demonstration of a high temperature solarheated rotary tube reactor for continuous particle calcination.  ${\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}/\mathrm{CaO}$  Indirect rotary tube  500–1600 °C  The reactor is composed of a cavitytype solar receiver for radiation absorption; external heating by concentrated solar energy is provided; indirect heating of the reactants; the heat is transferred to a rotary tube, and the reactive particles are continuously injected into the rotary tube.  [130] 
Zhejiang University of Technology (2018)  Power generation  Chemical  Design of a methanation reactor for producing hightemperature supercritical carbon dioxide in solar thermochemical energy storage  ${\mathrm{CH}}_{4}/{\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$  Tubular packed bed  700 °C  The system is composed of an endothermic and exothermic reactor at the inlet and outlet, respectively, each connected to a heat exchanger. Two materials vessels are used. The first to provide the methane to the endothermic reactor for decomposition under solar heating. The second is to store the product of the decomposition, which is pumping in the second reactor for ${\mathrm{CO}}_{2}$ production.  [171] 
Y. A. Criado (2014)  Power generation  Chemical  Analyze a thermochemical energy storage process using a hydroxide calcium chemical loop.  $\mathrm{CaO}/\mathrm{Ca}{\left(\mathrm{OH}\right)}_{2}$  Fluidized bed reactor  260 $\mathrm{kWh}\xb7{\mathrm{m}}^{3}$  Use of a single fluidized bed reactor alternating from hydration to dehydration conditions and two solid storage silos feeding solids continuously to the fluidized bed. Operation at atmospheric pressure is assumed for simplicity.  [164] 
Edwards et al., (2012)  solar power plants  Chemical  Developed a calcium looping CSP plant. Determined the operating conditions required to achieve satisfactory operation of the plant.  $\mathrm{CaO}/{\mathrm{CaCO}}_{3}$  Fluidized bed reactor  875 °C  Use of two reactor units operating independently. A solar calciner using concentrated solar energy to start the reaction. A carbonator recombines the product of the reaction thus releasing heat to the turbine.  [172] 
General Atomics (2O11)  Power generation  Chemical  Modified a storage cycle to yield elemental sulfur as a byproduct, which is then stored and later used as a combustible to generate power.  SulfurBased  1200 °C  Use of two distinct turbines. The first one is actuated by the flue gas leaving the combustion chamber. Use of heat exchanger to drive the heat to the second turbine powering a Rankine cycle.  [173] 
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Gbenou, T.R.S.; FopahLele, A.; Wang, K. Recent Status and Prospects on Thermochemical Heat Storage Processes and Applications. Entropy 2021, 23, 953. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23080953
Gbenou TRS, FopahLele A, Wang K. Recent Status and Prospects on Thermochemical Heat Storage Processes and Applications. Entropy. 2021; 23(8):953. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23080953
Chicago/Turabian StyleGbenou, Tadagbe Roger Sylvanus, Armand FopahLele, and Kejian Wang. 2021. "Recent Status and Prospects on Thermochemical Heat Storage Processes and Applications" Entropy 23, no. 8: 953. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23080953