# Research on Multi-Dimensional Optimal Location Selection of Maintenance Station Based on Big Data of Vehicle Trajectory

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Problem Description and Model Establishment

#### 2.1. Problem Description

#### 2.2. Establishment of Double-Dimensional Planning Location Model

- The first-level maintenance station is transformed on the basis of the second-level maintenance station, so the new first-level maintenance station is selected from the second-level maintenance station that has been selected;
- The maintenance capacity and inventory capacity of the first-level maintenance station are not limited;
- The cost of establishing and operating a maintenance station is fixed and known (including its land cost, storage cost, transportation cost, etc.).

#### 2.2.1. Establishment of Cost-Minimization Model

- The fixed cost required for the construction of the maintenance station, including the expansion’s land cost, construction cost, and management and operation cost;
- Distance cost from demand point to maintenance station and weight cost.

#### 2.2.2. Establishment of Service Level Maximization Model

#### 2.3. Algorithm Introduction and Design

#### 2.3.1. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

#### 2.3.2. Immune Algorithm

## 3. Example Verification

#### 3.1. Region Division of Second-Level Maintenance Stations

#### 3.2. Parameter Calculation of Second-Level Maintenance Station

#### 3.3. Solution of Location Model of First-Level Maintenance Station in Region

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

**Pseudo code 1**

**procedure K-means**

**while true**

**end procedure**

**Pseudo code 2**

**procedure PSO**

**for**each particle i

**end for**

**while**not stop

**for**i = l to N

**if**fit (i) < fit ($Bes{t}_{i}$)

**if**fit ($Pbes{t}_{i}$) < fit (gbest)

**end for**

**end while**

**end procedure**

**Pseudo code 3**

**Procedure IA**

**Recognize antigen**%Identify the problem to be solved

**Generate initial antibody population**→ Ag %Feasible solution to the initial problem

**for**each antibody i

**end for**

**while**(conditions = true)

**otherwise**calculate antibody concentration and motivation

**end while**

**end procedure**

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Maintenance Station Level | Main Tasks | Objectives and Requirements | Construction Scale | Service Object |
---|---|---|---|---|

First-level Maintenance Station | Daily maintenance. Emergency maintenance. Spare parts distribution center. | Cost. Quality. Efficiency. | Small quantity. Many service items. | Second-level maintenance station. Vehicle maintenance. |

Second-level Maintenance Station | Daily maintenance. Emergency maintenance. | Cost. Quality. Efficiency. | Large quantity. Fewer service items. | Vehicle maintenance. |

Demand Point | Coordinate | Fixed Cost (Yuan) | Demand/t |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 1, 2 | 1100 | 5 |

2 | 3, 3 | 1600 | 4 |

3 | 5, 9 | 1400 | 2 |

4 | 8, 2 | 1400 | 3 |

5 | 3, 6 | 1500 | 2 |

6 | 6, 9 | 1300 | 4 |

7 | 7, 3 | 1800 | 3 |

8 | 4, 8 | 1200 | 5 |

9 | 1, 6 | 1100 | 4 |

10 | 2, 6 | 1400 | 10 |

Location Scheme | The First-Level Maintenance Station | Service Demand Point | Total Cost/Yuan | Service Level (Total Distance/km) |
---|---|---|---|---|

Scheme 1 | 1 | 2 4 5 7 | 2311 | 111 |

9 | 3 6 8 10 | |||

Scheme 2 | 2 | 1 4 7 9 | 3122 | 322 |

8 | 3 5 6 10 |

Project | Vin | Lng | Lat | Tick_Time | Dir | Height | Mileage | Speed |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | LBZ447DB8HA005216 | 102.295 | 25.096 | 16 October 2018 15:08:34 | 0 | 1831 | 72,224.5 | 120 |

2 | LBZ447DB4HA005214 | 102.298 | 25.119 | 16 October 2018 09:23:29 | 0 | 1816 | 71,309.3 | 114.1 |

3 | LBZ447DBXHA005217 | 102.295 | 25.088 | 16 October 2018 09:30:55 | 0 | 1806 | 68,370.4 | 113.9 |

4 | LBZ447DB5HA005240 | 109.434 | 38.993 | 16 October 2018 10:00:33 | 180 | 1280 | 128,022.1 | 107 |

5 | LBZ447DBXHA005217 | 102.295 | 25.096 | 16 October 2018 09:31:25 | 0 | 1826 | 68,371.4 | 106.9 |

6 | LBZ447DB1HA005218 | 102.300 | 25.146 | 16 October 2018 14:47:34 | 0 | 1839 | 66,056.8 | 104.3 |

7 | LBZ447DB7HA001058 | 109.434 | 38.961 | 16 October 2018 19:19:07 | 180 | 1279 | 135,523 | 100.5 |

8 | LBZ447DB7HA001061 | 102.264 | 24.981 | 16 October 2018 14:47:34 | 0 | 1829 | 66,037.3 | 98.2 |

9 | LBZ447DB7HA001058 | 116.416 | 31.558 | 16 October 2018 13:14:46 | 180 | 79 | 83,624.5 | 95 |

10 | LBZ447DB9HA001059 | 116.542 | 31.855 | 16 October 2018 14:17:34 | 90 | 32 | 150,351 | 94.5 |

Category | Demand Point/Group | Number of Second-Level Maintenance Stations | Number of First-Level Maintenance Stations |
---|---|---|---|

Region 1 | 9220 | 35 | 2 |

Region 2 | 17,480 | 65 | 3 |

Region 3 | 20,336 | 76 | 4 |

Region 4 | 9756 | 36 | 2 |

Region 5 | 10,585 | 40 | 2 |

Region 6 | 8783 | 33 | 2 |

Demand Point | Geographic Coordinates | Fixed Cost (Ten Thousand Yuan) | Demand/t |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 32.21867, 116.26218 | 25 | 28 |

2 | 29.16436, 115.79075 | 20 | 26 |

3 | 31.38921, 115.58497 | 25 | 19 |

4 | 30.12728, 116.03418 | 25 | 14 |

5 | 34.71267, 113.76162 | 45 | 22 |

6 | 32.5403, 112.35854 | 30 | 18 |

7 | 32.07955, 115.41578 | 30 | 13 |

8 | 31.84565, 115.93216 | 25 | 68 |

9 | 32.0177, 116.19089 | 25 | 38 |

10 | 29.81511, 115.90947 | 25 | 10 |

11 | 32.19713, 114.19572 | 30 | 24 |

12 | 32.56858, 110.87686 | 35 | 16 |

13 | 30.48531, 114.54544 | 45 | 9 |

14 | 29.50387, 115.88384 | 20 | 18 |

15 | 28.27018, 116.80671 | 25 | 21 |

16 | 31.23276, 115.39667 | 25 | 34 |

17 | 28.87688, 115.90078 | 35 | 34 |

18 | 30.55213, 114.27848 | 45 | 37 |

19 | 28.69909, 115.49825 | 30 | 18 |

20 | 31.13011, 114.84591 | 30 | 13 |

21 | 31.29302, 114.10686 | 30 | 11 |

22 | 29.88615, 116.54327 | 25 | 16 |

23 | 31.07927, 116.34622 | 30 | 15 |

24 | 33.04207, 113.95872 | 25 | 16 |

25 | 31.74561, 116.53643 | 25 | 25 |

26 | 28.4685, 116.05474 | 35 | 36 |

27 | 30.86745, 115.34308 | 30 | 20 |

28 | 34.0804, 113.59339 | 30 | 67 |

29 | 29.37167, 115.84648 | 25 | 23 |

30 | 29.07695, 116.95104 | 25 | 26 |

31 | 29.75774, 116.31946 | 25 | 42 |

32 | 32.75705, 114.91755 | 30 | 60 |

33 | 31.53074, 115.82617 | 25 | 19 |

34 | 31.86181, 116.11469 | 25 | 40 |

35 | 30.22965, 114.91721 | 30 | 26 |

Solution Algorithm | First-Level Maintenance Station | Include Demand Points | Cost/Yuan |
---|---|---|---|

Particle Swarm Optimization | 14 | 2 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 29 30 31 33 | 455,606 |

34 | 1 3 4 5 6 8 9 18 25 28 32 34 35 | ||

Improved Particle Swarm Optimization | 2 | 2 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 26 27 30 33 | 408,770 |

14 | 1 3 7 8 14 16 23 25 28 29 31 32 34 35 |

Solution Algorithm | First-Level Maintenance Station | Include Demand Points | Service Level (Total Distance/km) |
---|---|---|---|

Immune Algorithm | 27 | 2 4 10 13 14 15 17 19 22 26 29 30 31 35 | 4332 |

9 | 1 3 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 16 18 20 21 23 24 25 27 28 32 33 34 |

Location Scheme | The First-Level Maintenance Station | Service Demand Point | Total Cost/Yuan | Service Level (Total Distance/km) |
---|---|---|---|---|

Scheme 1 | 27 | 2 4 10 13 14 15 17 19 22 26 29 30 31 35 | 435,690 | 4332 |

9 | 1 3 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 16 18 20 21 23 24 25 27 28 32 33 34 | |||

Scheme 2 | 2 | 2 4 5 6 9 10 11 12 13 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 26 27 30 33 | 408,770 | 8105 |

14 | 1 3 7 8 14 16 23 25 28 29 31 32 34 35 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, S.; Tong, F.; Li, M.; Jin, S.; Li, Z.
Research on Multi-Dimensional Optimal Location Selection of Maintenance Station Based on Big Data of Vehicle Trajectory. *Entropy* **2021**, *23*, 495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050495

**AMA Style**

Zhang S, Tong F, Li M, Jin S, Li Z.
Research on Multi-Dimensional Optimal Location Selection of Maintenance Station Based on Big Data of Vehicle Trajectory. *Entropy*. 2021; 23(5):495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050495

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Shoujing, Fujiao Tong, Mengdan Li, Shoufeng Jin, and Zhixiong Li.
2021. "Research on Multi-Dimensional Optimal Location Selection of Maintenance Station Based on Big Data of Vehicle Trajectory" *Entropy* 23, no. 5: 495.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050495