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Article

Cusp of Non-Gaussian Density of Particles for a Diffusing Diffusivity Model

by 1,*,†, 1,† and 2,*,†
1
Department of Physics, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel
2
Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Entropy 2021, 23(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23020231
Received: 20 December 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 17 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Single-Particle Tracking: Experiment and Analysis)
We study a two state “jumping diffusivity” model for a Brownian process alternating between two different diffusion constants, D+>D, with random waiting times in both states whose distribution is rather general. In the limit of long measurement times, Gaussian behavior with an effective diffusion coefficient is recovered. We show that, for equilibrium initial conditions and when the limit of the diffusion coefficient D0 is taken, the short time behavior leads to a cusp, namely a non-analytical behavior, in the distribution of the displacements P(x,t) for x0. Visually this cusp, or tent-like shape, resembles similar behavior found in many experiments of diffusing particles in disordered environments, such as glassy systems and intracellular media. This general result depends only on the existence of finite mean values of the waiting times at the different states of the model. Gaussian statistics in the long time limit is achieved due to ergodicity and convergence of the distribution of the temporal occupation fraction in state D+ to a δ-function. The short time behavior of the same quantity converges to a uniform distribution, which leads to the non-analyticity in P(x,t). We demonstrate how super-statistical framework is a zeroth order short time expansion of P(x,t), in the number of transitions, that does not yield the cusp like shape. The latter, considered as the key feature of experiments in the field, is found with the first correction in perturbation theory. View Full-Text
Keywords: CTRW; diffusing-diffusivity; occupation time statistics CTRW; diffusing-diffusivity; occupation time statistics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hidalgo-Soria, M.; Barkai, E.; Burov, S. Cusp of Non-Gaussian Density of Particles for a Diffusing Diffusivity Model. Entropy 2021, 23, 231. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23020231

AMA Style

Hidalgo-Soria M, Barkai E, Burov S. Cusp of Non-Gaussian Density of Particles for a Diffusing Diffusivity Model. Entropy. 2021; 23(2):231. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23020231

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hidalgo-Soria, M., E. Barkai, and S. Burov. 2021. "Cusp of Non-Gaussian Density of Particles for a Diffusing Diffusivity Model" Entropy 23, no. 2: 231. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23020231

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