Information theory provides a powerful framework to analyse the representation of sensory stimuli in neural population activity. However, estimating the quantities involved such as entropy and mutual information from finite samples is notoriously hard and any direct estimate is known to be heavily biased. This is especially true when considering large neural populations. We study a simple model of sensory processing and show through a combinatorial argument that, with high probability, for large neural populations any finite number of samples of neural activity in response to a set of stimuli is mutually distinct. As a consequence, the mutual information when estimated directly from empirical histograms will be equal to the stimulus entropy. Importantly, this is the case irrespective of the precise relation between stimulus and neural activity and corresponds to a maximal bias. This argument is general and applies to any application of information theory, where the state space is large and one relies on empirical histograms. Overall, this work highlights the need for alternative approaches for an information theoretic analysis when dealing with large neural populations.
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