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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Inducing Gamma Oscillations in Hippocampal Subregions DG, CA3, and CA1 on the Potential Alleviation of Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathology: Computer Modeling and Simulations

1
Intrafaculty College of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, Medical University of Gdańsk, 1 Debinki St., 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland
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Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 1 Debinki St., 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland
3
Department of Periodontology and Oral Mucosa Diseases, Medical University of Gdańsk, 18 E. Orzeszkowej St., 80-204 Gdańsk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060587
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of the gamma oscillation function (40–130 Hz) to reduce Alzheimer’s disease related pathology in a computer model of the hippocampal network dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 (DG-CA3-CA1) regions. Methods: Computer simulations were made for a pathological model in which Alzheimer’s disease was simulated by synaptic degradation in the hippocampus. Pathology modeling was based on sequentially turning off the connections with entorhinal cortex layer 2 (EC2) and the dentate gyrus on CA3 pyramidal neurons. Gamma induction modeling consisted of simulating the oscillation provided by the septo-hippocampal pathway with band frequencies from 40–130 Hz. Pathological models with and without gamma induction were compared with a control. Results: In the hippocampal regions of DG, CA3, and CA1, and jointly DG-CA3-CA1 and CA3-CA1, gamma induction resulted in a statistically significant improvement in terms of increased numbers of spikes, spikes per burst, and burst duration as compared with the model simulating Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The positive maximal Lyapunov exponent was negative in both the control model and the one with gamma induction as opposed to the pathological model where it was positive within the DG-CA3-CA1 region. Gamma induction resulted in decreased transfer entropy in accordance with the information flow in DG → CA3 and CA3 → CA1. Conclusions: The results of simulation studies show that inducing gamma oscillations in the hippocampus may reduce Alzheimer’s disease related pathology. Pathologically higher transfer entropy values after gamma induction returned to values comparable to the control model. View Full-Text
Keywords: entropy; neural networks; Alzheimer’s disease; hippocampus; long-term potentiation (LTP); gamma oscillations; computer simulation entropy; neural networks; Alzheimer’s disease; hippocampus; long-term potentiation (LTP); gamma oscillations; computer simulation
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Świetlik, D.; Białowąs, J.; Moryś, J.; Klejbor, I.; Kusiak, A. Effects of Inducing Gamma Oscillations in Hippocampal Subregions DG, CA3, and CA1 on the Potential Alleviation of Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathology: Computer Modeling and Simulations. Entropy 2019, 21, 587.

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