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Open AccessArticle

Complexity Analysis of Escher’s Art

1
UISPA–LAETA/INEGI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
Institute of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Department of Electrical Engineering, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060553
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fractional View of Complexity)
Art is the output of a complex system based on the human spirit and driven by several inputs that embed social, cultural, economic and technological aspects of a given epoch. A solid quantitative analysis of art poses considerable difficulties and reaching assertive conclusions is a formidable challenge. In this paper, we adopt complexity indices, dimensionality-reduction and visualization techniques for studying the evolution of Escher’s art. Grayscale versions of 457 artworks are analyzed by means of complexity indices and represented using the multidimensional scaling technique. The results are correlated with the distinct periods of Escher’s artistic production. The time evolution of the complexity and the emergent patterns demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach for a quantitative characterization of art. View Full-Text
Keywords: complexity; information theory; multidimensional scaling; art complexity; information theory; multidimensional scaling; art
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Lopes, A.M.; Tenreiro Machado, J.A. Complexity Analysis of Escher’s Art. Entropy 2019, 21, 553.

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