Next Article in Journal
Information Entropy Theory Applied to the Dip-Phenomenon Analysis in Open Channel Flows
Next Article in Special Issue
Analytical Solutions of Fractional-Order Diffusion Equations by Natural Transform Decomposition Method
Previous Article in Journal
Algorithmic Probability Method Versus Kolmogorov Complexity with No-Threshold Encoding Scheme for Short Time Series: An Analysis of Day-To-Day Hourly Solar Radiation Time Series over Tropical Western Indian Ocean
Previous Article in Special Issue
Adaptive Synchronization Strategy between Two Autonomous Dissipative Chaotic Systems Using Fractional-Order Mittag–Leffler Stability
Open AccessArticle

Complexity Analysis of Escher’s Art

UISPA–LAETA/INEGI, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Institute of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Department of Electrical Engineering, R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 553;
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fractional View of Complexity)
Art is the output of a complex system based on the human spirit and driven by several inputs that embed social, cultural, economic and technological aspects of a given epoch. A solid quantitative analysis of art poses considerable difficulties and reaching assertive conclusions is a formidable challenge. In this paper, we adopt complexity indices, dimensionality-reduction and visualization techniques for studying the evolution of Escher’s art. Grayscale versions of 457 artworks are analyzed by means of complexity indices and represented using the multidimensional scaling technique. The results are correlated with the distinct periods of Escher’s artistic production. The time evolution of the complexity and the emergent patterns demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach for a quantitative characterization of art. View Full-Text
Keywords: complexity; information theory; multidimensional scaling; art complexity; information theory; multidimensional scaling; art
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lopes, A.M.; Tenreiro Machado, J.A. Complexity Analysis of Escher’s Art. Entropy 2019, 21, 553.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop