The knowledge of the fluid discharge in free surface flows requires a great number of velocity measurements along the whole cross-section, taking up a large amount of time, using expensive equipment, and employing specialized labor. To overcome these obstacles, various models have been developed thus far that show how to estimate the mean velocity through the maximum velocity. In three-dimensional open channels, the maximum velocity can be located below the free surface because of the presence of secondary flows mainly originating by the sidewalls, an occurrence known as dip-phenomenon. In this condition, predicting the maximum velocity position is quite difficult and has always represented a challenge to most hydraulic engineers and researchers. In the present study, a mathematical model derived from the information entropy theory is proposed to evaluate the velocity-dip-position over the entire cross-section of both wide and narrow open channels, thus overcoming the limitations of the existing methods. Large literature measurement sets, collected in uniform and non-uniform flows, were used to test the validity of the model, showing good agreement with the experimental data and providing an accurate estimation of the dip-position.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited