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Entropy 2019, 21(4), 406;

Entropy Balance in the Expanding Universe: A Novel Perspective

Center for Nonlinear Science, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, 75A Chancellor’s Circle, Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 14 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Spacetime and Entanglement Entropy)
PDF [230 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]


We describe cosmic expansion as correlated with the standpoints of local observers’ co-moving horizons. In keeping with relational quantum mechanics, which claims that quantum systems are only meaningful in the context of measurements, we suggest that information gets ergodically “diluted” in our isotropic and homogeneous expanding Universe, so that an observer detects just a limited amount of the total cosmic bits. The reduced bit perception is due the decreased density of information inside the expanding cosmic volume in which the observer resides. Further, we show that the second law of thermodynamics can be correlated with cosmic expansion through a relational mechanism, because the decrease in information detected by a local observer in an expanding Universe is concomitant with an increase in perceived cosmic thermodynamic entropy, via the Bekenstein bound and the Laudauer principle. Reversing the classical scheme from thermodynamic entropy to information, we suggest that the cosmological constant of the quantum vacuum, which is believed to provoke the current cosmic expansion, could be one of the sources of the perceived increases in thermodynamic entropy. We conclude that entropies, including the entangled entropy of the recently developed framework of quantum computational spacetime, might not describe independent properties, but rather relations among systems and observers. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum vacuum; Bekenstein bound; cosmological constant; ergodicity quantum vacuum; Bekenstein bound; cosmological constant; ergodicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tozzi, A.; Peters, J.F. Entropy Balance in the Expanding Universe: A Novel Perspective. Entropy 2019, 21, 406.

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