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Entropy 2019, 21(4), 355;

Modern Text Hiding, Text Steganalysis, and Applications: A Comparative Analysis

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 210094, Nanjing, China
Intelligent Manufacturing Department, Wuyi University, P.O. Box 529020, Jiangmen, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy Based Data Hiding)
PDF [4757 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]


Modern text hiding is an intelligent programming technique which embeds a secret message/watermark into a cover text message/file in a hidden way to protect confidential information. Recently, text hiding in the form of watermarking and steganography has found broad applications in, for instance, covert communication, copyright protection, content authentication, etc. In contrast to text hiding, text steganalysis is the process and science of identifying whether a given carrier text file/message has hidden information in it, and, if possible, extracting/detecting the embedded hidden information. This paper presents an overview of state of the art of the text hiding area, and provides a comparative analysis of recent techniques, especially those focused on marking structural characteristics of digital text message/file to hide secret bits. Also, we discuss different types of attacks and their effects to highlight the pros and cons of the recently introduced approaches. Finally, we recommend some directions and guidelines for future works. View Full-Text
Keywords: modern text hiding; text steganography; text steganalysis; covert communication modern text hiding; text steganography; text steganalysis; covert communication

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Taleby Ahvanooey, M.; Li, Q.; Hou, J.; Rajput, A.R.; Chen, Y. Modern Text Hiding, Text Steganalysis, and Applications: A Comparative Analysis. Entropy 2019, 21, 355.

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