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Open AccessArticle

Heart Rate Dynamics in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Heart Rate Variability and Entropy

1
Key Laboratory of Biomedical Functional Materials, School of Science, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China
2
Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China
3
Center for Dynamical Biomarkers, Division of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100927
Received: 15 August 2019 / Revised: 20 September 2019 / Accepted: 22 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a highly prevalent sleep disorder, is closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our previous work demonstrated that Shannon entropy of the degree distribution (EDD), obtained from the network domain of heart rate variability (HRV), might be a potential indicator for CVD. Method: To investigate the potential association between OSA and EDD, OSA patients and healthy controls (HCs) were identified from a sleep study database. Then EDD was calculated from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals during sleep, followed by cross-sectional comparisons between OSA patients and HCs, and longitudinal comparisons from baseline to follow-up visits. Furthermore, for OSA patients, the association between EDD and OSA severity, measured by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), was also analyzed. Results: Compared with HCs, OSA patients had significantly increased EDD during sleep. A positive correlation between EDD and the severity of OSA was also observed. Although the value of EDD became larger with aging, it was not OSA-specified. Conclusion: Increased EDD derived from ECG signals during sleep might be a potential dynamic biomarker to identify OSA patients from HCs, which may be used in screening OSA with high risk before polysomnography is considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrocardiogram; heart rate dynamics; obstructive sleep apnea; graph theory; entropy electrocardiogram; heart rate dynamics; obstructive sleep apnea; graph theory; entropy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, L.; Fu, M.; Xu, F.; Hou, F.; Ma, Y. Heart Rate Dynamics in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Heart Rate Variability and Entropy. Entropy 2019, 21, 927.

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