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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Nature of Heat and Thermal Energy: From Caloric to Carnot’s Reflections, to Entropy, Exergy, Entransy and Beyond

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA
Entropy 2018, 20(8), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080584
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
The nature of thermal phenomena is still elusive and sometimes misconstrued. Starting from Lavoisier, who presumed that caloric as a weightless substance is conserved, to Sadi Carnot who erroneously assumed that work is extracted while caloric is conserved, to modern day researchers who argue that thermal energy is an indistinguishable part of internal energy, to the generalization of entropy and challengers of the Second Law of thermodynamics, the relevant thermal concepts are critically discussed here. Original reflections about the nature of thermo-mechanical energy transfer, classical and generalized entropy, exergy, and new entransy concept are reasoned and put in historical and contemporary contexts, with the objective of promoting further constructive debates and hopefully resolve some critical issues within the subtle thermal landscape. View Full-Text
Keywords: entransy; entropy; exergy; heat; thermal energy; Carnot work potential entransy; entropy; exergy; heat; thermal energy; Carnot work potential
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kostic, M.M. Nature of Heat and Thermal Energy: From Caloric to Carnot’s Reflections, to Entropy, Exergy, Entransy and Beyond. Entropy 2018, 20, 584. https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080584

AMA Style

Kostic MM. Nature of Heat and Thermal Energy: From Caloric to Carnot’s Reflections, to Entropy, Exergy, Entransy and Beyond. Entropy. 2018; 20(8):584. https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080584

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kostic, Milivoje M. 2018. "Nature of Heat and Thermal Energy: From Caloric to Carnot’s Reflections, to Entropy, Exergy, Entransy and Beyond" Entropy 20, no. 8: 584. https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080584

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