Next Article in Journal
Performance Analysis of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Based Syngas
Next Article in Special Issue
Cooling Effectiveness of a Data Center Room under Overhead Airflow via Entropy Generation Assessment in Transient Scenarios
Previous Article in Journal
Reconstruction of PET Images Using Cross-Entropy and Field of Experts
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nature of Heat and Thermal Energy: From Caloric to Carnot’s Reflections, to Entropy, Exergy, Entransy and Beyond

Desalination Processes’ Efficiency and Future Roadmap

Water Desalination and Reuse Centre, King Abdullah University of Science & Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(1), 84;
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
For future sustainable seawater desalination, the importance of achieving better energy efficiency of the existing 19,500 commercial-scale desalination plants cannot be over emphasized. The major concern of the desalination industry is the inadequate approach to energy efficiency evaluation of diverse seawater desalination processes by omitting the grade of energy supplied. These conventional approaches would suffice if the efficacy comparison were to be conducted for the same energy input processes. The misconception of considering all derived energies as equivalent in the desalination industry has severe economic and environmental consequences. In the realms of the energy and desalination system planners, serious judgmental errors in the process selection of green installations are made unconsciously as the efficacy data are either flawed or inaccurate. Inferior efficacy technologies’ implementation decisions were observed in many water-stressed countries that can burden a country’s economy immediately with higher unit energy cost as well as cause more undesirable environmental effects on the surroundings. In this article, a standard primary energy-based thermodynamic framework is presented that addresses energy efficacy fairly and accurately. It shows clearly that a thermally driven process consumes 2.5–3% of standard primary energy (SPE) when combined with power plants. A standard universal performance ratio-based evaluation method has been proposed that showed all desalination processes performance varies from 10–14% of the thermodynamic limit. To achieve 2030 sustainability goals, innovative processes are required to meet 25–30% of the thermodynamic limit. View Full-Text
Keywords: standard primary energy; primary energy; standard universal performance ratio; desalination standard primary energy; primary energy; standard universal performance ratio; desalination
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Shahzad, M.W.; Burhan, M.; Ybyraiymkul, D.; Ng, K.C. Desalination Processes’ Efficiency and Future Roadmap. Entropy 2019, 21, 84.

AMA Style

Shahzad MW, Burhan M, Ybyraiymkul D, Ng KC. Desalination Processes’ Efficiency and Future Roadmap. Entropy. 2019; 21(1):84.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shahzad, Muhammad W., Muhammad Burhan, Doskhan Ybyraiymkul, and Kim C. Ng. 2019. "Desalination Processes’ Efficiency and Future Roadmap" Entropy 21, no. 1: 84.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop