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Entropy 2017, 19(5), 212;

Boltzmann Entropy of a Newtonian Universe

Instituto Universitario de Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Valencia 46022, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Remo Garattini
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Black Holes)
Full-Text   |   PDF [256 KB, uploaded 23 May 2017]


A dynamical estimate is given for the Boltzmann entropy of the Universe, under the simplifying assumptions provided by Newtonian cosmology. We first model the cosmological fluid as the probability fluid of a quantum-mechanical system. Next, following current ideas about the emergence of spacetime, we regard gravitational equipotentials as isoentropic surfaces. Therefore, gravitational entropy is proportional to the vacuum expectation value of the gravitational potential in a certain quantum state describing the matter contents of the Universe. The entropy of the matter sector can also be computed. While providing values of the entropy that turn out to be somewhat higher than existing estimates, our results are in perfect compliance with the upper bound set by the holographic principle. View Full-Text
Keywords: newtonian cosmology; emergent quantum theory newtonian cosmology; emergent quantum theory
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Cabrera, D.; Fernández de Córdoba, P.; Isidro, J. Boltzmann Entropy of a Newtonian Universe. Entropy 2017, 19, 212.

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