Next Article in Journal
Label-Driven Learning Framework: Towards More Accurate Bayesian Network Classifiers through Discrimination of High-Confidence Labels
Next Article in Special Issue
Association between Multiscale Entropy Characteristics of Heart Rate Variability and Ischemic Stroke Risk in Patients with Permanent Atrial Fibrillation
Previous Article in Journal
Bayesian Nonlinear Filtering via Information Geometric Optimization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cosine Similarity Entropy: Self-Correlation-Based Complexity Analysis of Dynamical Systems
Open AccessArticle

Assessment of Heart Rate Variability during an Endurance Mountain Trail Race by Multi-Scale Entropy Analysis

1
Department of ESAII, Centre for Biomedical Engineering Research, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
INEFC-Barcelona Sport Sciences Research Group, Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de Catalunya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08038 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2017, 19(12), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19120658
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory Applied to Physiological Signals)
The aim of the study was to analyze heart rate variability (HRV) response to high-intensity exercise during a 35-km mountain trail race and to ascertain whether fitness level could influence autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation. Time-domain, frequency-domain, and multi-scale entropy (MSE) indexes were calculated for eleven mountain-trail runners who completed the race. Many changes were observed, mostly related to exercise load and fatigue. These changes were characterized by increased mean values and standard deviations of the normal-to-normal intervals associated with sympathetic activity, and by decreased differences between successive intervals related to parasympathetic activity. Normalized low frequency (LF) power suggested that ANS modulation varied greatly during the race and between individuals. Normalized high frequency (HF) power, associated with parasympathetic activity, varied considerably over the race, and tended to decrease at the final stages, whereas changes in the LF/HF ratio corresponded to intervals with varying exercise load. MSE indexes, related to system complexity, indicated the existence of many interactions between the heart and its neurological control mechanism. The time-domain, frequency-domain, and MSE indexes were also able to discriminate faster from slower runners, mainly in the more difficult and in the final stages of the race. These findings suggest the use of HRV analysis to study cardiac function mechanisms in endurance sports. View Full-Text
Keywords: complexity; heart rate variability; multi-scale entropy; time series analysis complexity; heart rate variability; multi-scale entropy; time series analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vallverdú, M.; Ruiz-Muñoz, A.; Roca, E.; Caminal, P.; Rodríguez, F.A.; Irurtia, A.; Perera, A. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability during an Endurance Mountain Trail Race by Multi-Scale Entropy Analysis. Entropy 2017, 19, 658.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop