- freely available
Entropy 2012, 14(10), 1894-1914; https://doi.org/10.3390/e14101894
2. Dual View of Electromagnet System
2.1. Energy and Exergy Balances
2.2. Useful Mechanical Work of Armature in Movement
- at a constant current I = I1 = const., when the evolution is described by the straight line or
- at a constant flux Ψ = Ψ1 = const., when the evolution follows the straight line .
- W12 = W12' at I = const. (when the evolution is along the straight line ), where
- W12 = W12" at Ψ = const. (when the evolution is along the straight line ), where
- Due to the existence of two inductances (static Ls and dynamic Ld), the “risk” of the double interpretation appears often. Only if the coils do not have a ferromagnetic core (when Ψ = f(i) is a straight line) are the two inductances (static and dynamic) the same, i.e., Ls = Ld = L and This result implies that, during the transient process of the industrial ecosystem moving among multiple stable states, it is advantageous to work with the dynamic inductance rather than the static inductance.
- Graphical interpretations have been obtained theoretically of the classical formulas for the calculation of mechanical work, both at constant current (I = const.) and at constant flux (Ψ = const).
- With the general expression for the embedded magnetic energy, the mechanical work expressions W12' from Equation (14) and W12" from Equation (15) (performed for the armature in motion) can be written in a unitary mode with the following expressions:
2.3. Electromagnet Force and Torque
2.3.1. Electromagnet Operation with Constant Current-turns
2.3.2. Electromagnet Operation with Constant Magnetic Flux
2.3.3. Discussion of Forces
3. Discussion of Electromagnetic Quantities as Environmental Parameters
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