# Dispersal (Entropy) and Recognition (Information) as Foundations of Emergence and Dissolvence

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

**Figure 1.**A schematic representation of informational processes involved in the formation and self-organization of complex systems. This Figure must be seen as a roadmap whose arrows represent the relations to be discussed herein. Entropy as dispersal increases the range of possible encounters between agents. Their recognition necessitates information exchange leading to coherent behavior. This is equivalent to stating that the agents experience top-down constraints, a phenomenon also known as dissolvence or submergence which decreases their behavior and property space and increases the information content of the complex system. A better recognized property of complex systems is their dissipative nature, another major factor contributing to their homeostasis and adaptability.

## 2. Entropy and Dispersal

## 3. Recognition and Information

## 4. Collective Behavior, Open Systems and Emergence

## 5. Dissolvence

_{1}and χ

_{2}dihedral angles. This is equivalent to stating that conformational constraints on the side-chain of residues increase their information content and, hence, recognition specificity compared to free amino acids. In other words, the vastly increased capacity for recognition of a protein relative to its free monomers is embedded not only in the tertiary structure of the backbone, but also in the conformational behavior of its side-chains. The postulated implication is that both backbone and side-chains, by virtue of being conformationally constrained, contribute to the protein’s recognition specificity towards ligands and other macromolecules, a well-documented phenomenon in medicinal chemistry and biochemistry [42].

## 6. Conclusions

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© 2009 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Testa, B. Dispersal (Entropy) and Recognition (Information) as Foundations of Emergence and Dissolvence. *Entropy* **2009**, *11*, 993-1000.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e11040993

**AMA Style**

Testa B. Dispersal (Entropy) and Recognition (Information) as Foundations of Emergence and Dissolvence. *Entropy*. 2009; 11(4):993-1000.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e11040993

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Testa, Bernard. 2009. "Dispersal (Entropy) and Recognition (Information) as Foundations of Emergence and Dissolvence" *Entropy* 11, no. 4: 993-1000.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e11040993