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Nutrients, Volume 6, Issue 3 (March 2014), Pages 922-1332

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Nutrients in 2013
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 922-930; doi:10.3390/nu6030922
Received: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Nutrients would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements on Age-Related Cataracts: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 931-949; doi:10.3390/nu6030931
Received: 30 November 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 January 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antioxidant vitamins supplements have been suggested as a strategy to decrease the risk of age-related cataract development. However, the results from observational studies and interventional trials of associations between antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and cataract development have been inconsistent. We [...] Read more.
Antioxidant vitamins supplements have been suggested as a strategy to decrease the risk of age-related cataract development. However, the results from observational studies and interventional trials of associations between antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and cataract development have been inconsistent. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of multivitamin/mineral supplements for decreasing the risk of age-related cataracts by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. In September 2013, we searched multiple databases to identify relevant studies including both cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Twelve prospective cohort studies and two RCTs were included. Pooled results from the cohort studies indicated that multivitamin/mineral supplements have a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the risk of nuclear cataracts (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64–0.82), cortical cataracts (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68–0.94), and any cataracts (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.39–0.93). In addition, there were no decreases in the risk of posterior capsular cataracts (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.72–1.20) or cataract surgery (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.92–1.08). The two RCTs demonstrated that multivitamin/mineral supplements could decrease the risk of nuclear cataracts. There is sufficient evidence to support the role of dietary multivitamin/mineral supplements for the decreasing the risk of age-related cataracts. Full article
Open AccessArticle Increases in Plasma Lutein through Supplementation Are Correlated with Increases in Physical Activity and Reductions in Sedentary Time in Older Adults
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 974-984; doi:10.3390/nu6030974
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 3 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age, [...] Read more.
Cross-sectional studies have reported positive relationships between serum lutein concentrations and higher physical activity levels. The purpose of the study was to determine whether increasing plasma lutein levels increases physical activity. Forty-four older adults (BMI, 25.3 ± 2.6 kg/m2; age, 68.8 ± 6.4 year) not meeting Australian physical activity guidelines (150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity) were randomized to consume capsules containing 21 mg of lutein or placebo with 250 mL of full-cream milk per day for 4 weeks and encouraged to increase physical activity. Physical activity was assessed by self-report, pedometry and accelerometry (daily activity counts and sedentary time). Exercise self-efficacy was assessed by questionnaire. Thirty-nine participants competed the study (Lutein = 19, Placebo = 20). Lutein increased plasma lutein concentrations compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Absolute and percentage changes in plasma lutein were inversely associated with absolute (r = −0.36, p = 0.03) and percentage changes (r = −0.39, p = 0.02) in sedentary time. Percentage change in plasma lutein was positively associated with the percentage change in average daily activity counts (r = 0.36, p = 0.03). Exercise self-efficacy did not change (p = 0.16). Lutein increased plasma lutein, which was associated with increased physical activity and reduced sedentary time in older adults. Larger trials should evaluate whether Lutein can provide health benefits over the longer term. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of High Temperature- and High Pressure-Treated Red Ginseng on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in ICR Mouse
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1003-1015; doi:10.3390/nu6031003
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. [...] Read more.
As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. Our results show that the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, hepatic malondialdehyde in the HRG group were significantly lower than those of the exercise groups supplemented with commercial red ginseng (CRG) or not supplemented. The muscular glycogen level, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of the HGR group were higher than that of the CGR group. Furthermore, the HRG treatment group displayed upregulated mRNA expression of Cu/Zn-SOD and muscle regulatory factor 4. These results indicate that HRG may protect oxidative stress induced by exercise as well as improve exercise performance capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Lipid-Lowering Effects of Pediococcus acidilactici M76 Isolated from Korean Traditional Makgeolli in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1016-1028; doi:10.3390/nu6031016
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 15 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of Pediococcus acidilactici M76 (lactic acid bacteria) isolated from makgeolli on mice fed a high fat diet was investigated to clarify the lipid lowering function. C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into a normal diet (ND) group, high fat diet [...] Read more.
The effect of Pediococcus acidilactici M76 (lactic acid bacteria) isolated from makgeolli on mice fed a high fat diet was investigated to clarify the lipid lowering function. C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into a normal diet (ND) group, high fat diet (HD) group, HD plus Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 20284 reference strain (PR) group, and HD plus Pediococcus acidilactici M76 strain (PA) groups. The lyophilized PA and PR strain were dissolved in distilled water at a final concentration of 1.25 × 109 cfu/mL and was given orally to animals at a dose of 4 mL/kg body weight for 12 weeks. The PA group had a lower final body weight, adipose tissue weight, and lipid profile than those in the HD group. Additionally, level of ACC, FAS and PPAR-γ, a key lipid synthesis enzyme, was markedly suppressed in the PA compared to those in the HD group. These data suggest that P. acidilactici M76 may exert a lipid-lowering effect in high fat diet- induced obese mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorder and Obesity)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1029-1037; doi:10.3390/nu6031029
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
FokI and BsmI polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are regarded as reliable markers of disturbed vitamin D signaling pathway. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a strong cardiovascular risk marker in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Since BsmI polymorphism has [...] Read more.
FokI and BsmI polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are regarded as reliable markers of disturbed vitamin D signaling pathway. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a strong cardiovascular risk marker in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Since BsmI polymorphism has been associated with LVH in ESRD patients, we addressed this study in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis. One hundred and forty five patients with CKD stage 3 were genotyped for FokI and BsmI VDR polymorphisms, in order to assess the relationships between these VDR polymorphisms, some markers of mineral bone disorders, and LVH measured by echocardiography. Patients bearing either the Ff heterozygous or FF homozygous genotype had significantly higher PTH values than those bearing the ff genotype. The relationships between VDR genotypes and LVH revealed a highly significant association of the BsmI Bb heterozygous genotype with LVH. In patients with CKD stage 3 BsmI B allele was independently related to LVH. Since LVH is a frequent finding in dialysis population due to several mechanisms, the presence of the same relationship in patients with CKD strengthens the hypothesis that alterations of vitamin D signaling are implicated in LVH development in patients with renal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
Open AccessArticle Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1038-1062; doi:10.3390/nu6031038
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the [...] Read more.
The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Readily Available Sources of Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils: Is Farmed Australian Seafood a Better Source of the Good Oil than Wild-Caught Seafood?
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1063-1079; doi:10.3390/nu6031063
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 11 March 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain [...] Read more.
Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils. Notwithstanding, LC omega-3 oil content has decreased in these two farmed species, due largely to replacing dietary fish oil with poultry oil. For Atlantic salmon, LC omega-3 content decreased ~30%–50% between 2002 and 2013, and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio also decreased (>5:1 to <1:1). Australian consumers increasingly seek their LC omega-3 from supplements, therefore a range of supplement products were compared. The development and future application of oilseeds containing LC omega-3 oils and their incorporation in aquafeeds would allow these health-benefitting oils to be maximized in farmed Australian seafood. Such advances can assist with preventative health care, fisheries management, aquaculture nutrition, an innovative feed/food industry and ultimately towards improved consumer health. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Changing Selenium Nutritional Status of Chinese Residents
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1103-1114; doi:10.3390/nu6031103
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 20 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The selenium (Se) content in human hair is useful as an indicator of human Se intake and status. In this regard, when measuring the hair Se concentrations in Chinese inhabitants across northeast to southeast China, the results indicated that generally 84% of [...] Read more.
The selenium (Se) content in human hair is useful as an indicator of human Se intake and status. In this regard, when measuring the hair Se concentrations in Chinese inhabitants across northeast to southeast China, the results indicated that generally 84% of all residents have normal hair Se content. Between the sexes, the average hair Se content of males was higher than that of females, irrespective of districts. When comparing geographical regions, the average hair Se content of southern residents was greater than that of northern residents, regardless of gender. Historically, the overall hair Se content of today’s inhabitants decreased between 24% and 46% when compared with the inhabitants living in the same geographic region 20 years ago. The decrease of hair Se content may be related to the overall decrease of grain consumption and the lower Se content in the staple food rice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of the Novel Polysaccharide PolyGlycopleX® on Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production in a Computer-Controlled in Vitro Model of the Human Large Intestine
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1115-1127; doi:10.3390/nu6031115
Received: 9 January 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many of the health benefits associated with dietary fiber are attributed to their fermentation by microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentability of the functional fiber PolyGlyopleX® (PGX® [...] Read more.
Many of the health benefits associated with dietary fiber are attributed to their fermentation by microbiota and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentability of the functional fiber PolyGlyopleX® (PGX®) in vitro. A validated dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro system simulating the conditions in the proximal large intestine (TIM-2) was used. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) consumption in the system was used as an indicator of fermentability and SCFA and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) production was determined. NaOH consumption was significantly higher for Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) than PGX, which was higher than cellulose (p = 0.002). At 32, 48 and 72 h, acetate and butyrate production were higher for FOS and PGX versus cellulose. Propionate production was higher for PGX than cellulose at 32, 48, 56 and 72 h and higher than FOS at 72 h (p = 0.014). Total BCFA production was lower for FOS compared to cellulose, whereas production with PGX was lower than for cellulose at 72 h. In conclusion, PGX is fermented by the colonic microbiota which appeared to adapt to the substrate over time. The greater propionate production for PGX may explain part of the cholesterol-lowering properties of PGX seen in rodents and humans. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Normally Consumed Amounts of Sucrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup on Lipid Profiles, Body Composition and Related Parameters in Overweight/Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1128-1144; doi:10.3390/nu6031128
Received: 9 January 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist [...] Read more.
The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the principal sources of added dietary sugars, are consumed at levels typical of the general population. Sixty five overweight and obese individuals were placed on a eucaloric (weight stable) diet for 10-weeks, which incorporated sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 10% or 20% of calories in a randomized, double-blinded study. All groups responded similarly (interaction p > 0.05). There was no change in body weight in any of the groups over the 10-week study, or in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Likewise, there were no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or apolipoprotein B (Apo B). We conclude that (1) when consumed as part of a eucaloric diet fructose—when given with glucose (as normally consumed) does not promote weight gain or an atherogenic lipid profile even when consumed at two to four times the level recently recommended by the AHA. (2) There were no differences between HFCS and sucrose on these parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugar and Obesity)
Open AccessArticle Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1145-1163; doi:10.3390/nu6031145
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 18 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, [...] Read more.
A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Zinc Deficiency Affects Blood Linoleic Acid: Dihomo-γ-linolenic Acid (LA:DGLA) Ratio; a Sensitive Physiological Marker of Zinc Status in Vivo (Gallus gallus)
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1164-1180; doi:10.3390/nu6031164
Received: 9 January 2014 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus [...] Read more.
Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formulated and two groups of birds (n = 12) were randomly separated upon hatching into two diets, Zn(+) (zinc adequate control, 42.3 μg/g zinc), and Zn(−) (zinc deficient, 2.5 μg/g zinc). Dietary zinc intake, body weight, serum zinc, and the erythrocyte fatty acid profile were measured weekly. At the conclusion of the study, tissues were collected for gene expression analysis. Body weight, feed consumption, zinc intake, and serum zinc were higher in the Zn(+) control versus Zn(−) group (p < 0.05). Hepatic TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression were higher in the Zn(+) control group (p < 0.05), and hepatic Δ6 desaturase was significantly higher in the Zn(+) group (p < 0.001). The LA:DGLA ratio was significantly elevated in the Zn(−) group compared to the Zn(+) group (22.6 ± 0.5 and 18.5 ± 0.5, % w/w, respectively, p < 0.001). This study suggests erythrocyte LA:DGLA is able to differentiate zinc status between zinc adequate and zinc deficient birds, and may be a sensitive biomarker to assess dietary zinc manipulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1182-1193; doi:10.3390/nu6031182
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered [...] Read more.
The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OH)D < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9–12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3–165.5). Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OH)D (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L) than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L), 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L) and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L). Five of six infants with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Curcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Hypertension and Tissue Cadmium Accumulation in Mice
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1194-1208; doi:10.3390/nu6031194
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd)—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR [...] Read more.
Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd)—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L) in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg) was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in the aortic tissues and reducing plasma malondialdehyde, plasma protein carbonyls, and urinary nitrate/nitrite levels. Curcumin also decreased Cd accumulation in the blood and various organs of Cd-intoxicated mice. These findings suggest that curcumin, due to its antioxidant and chelating properties, is a promising protective agent against hypertension and vascular dysfunction induced by Cd. Full article
Open AccessArticle Therapeutic Effect of Polysaccharide of Large Yellow Croaker Swim Bladder on Lupus Nephritis of Mice
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1223-1235; doi:10.3390/nu6031223
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The therapeutic effect of polysaccharide of large yellow croaker swim bladder (PLYCSB) on lupus nephritis has been studied in vivo. A high concentration (50 mg/kg dose) of PLYCSB reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and [...] Read more.
The therapeutic effect of polysaccharide of large yellow croaker swim bladder (PLYCSB) on lupus nephritis has been studied in vivo. A high concentration (50 mg/kg dose) of PLYCSB reduced the levels of serum inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ compared to a low concentration (25 mg/kg dose) and control mice. SCr, BUN, TC and TG serum levels of PLYCSB treated mice were lower than those of control mice, and TP and ALB serum levels were higher than control mice. Control mice tested ds-DNA positive at the 6th week, and 50 mg/kg treated mice tested at the 10th week after the experiment began. The output of urine protein of 50 mg/kg PLYCSB treated mice was most closely comparable to the normal mice. The glomerular number of 50 mg/kg PLYCSB treated mice was more than the 25 mg/kg dose and control groups, and the 50 mg/kg dose group showed the lowest glomerular sclerosis index in lupus nephritis mice. By RT-PCR and western blot assay, PLYCSB significantly induced inflammation in kidney tissues of mice by downregulating NF-κB-p65, TGF-β1, Fas, FasL and upregulating IκB-α. These results suggest that PLYCSB showed a potential curative effect on lupus nephritis as a drug or functional food. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Hypertriglyceridemia in the Development of Atherosclerosis and Endothelial Dysfunction
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1236-1250; doi:10.3390/nu6031236
Received: 2 January 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1959 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemic rabbit (PHT rabbit) is a new dyslipidemic model showing remarkably high plasma triglycerides with only limited elevation of plasma total cholesterol. In PHT rabbits, plasma triglyceride was markedly elevated postprandially compared with healthy Japanese white (JW) rabbits. In [...] Read more.
A hereditary postprandial hypertriglyceridemic rabbit (PHT rabbit) is a new dyslipidemic model showing remarkably high plasma triglycerides with only limited elevation of plasma total cholesterol. In PHT rabbits, plasma triglyceride was markedly elevated postprandially compared with healthy Japanese white (JW) rabbits. In physiological experiments, the ring preparation of the thoracic aorta was suspended in an organ bath filled with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, and the developed tension was recorded. Endothelial function was evaluated by acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in each preparation with intact endothelium. The acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was diminished in PHT compared with JW rabbits, suggesting endothelial dysfunction in PHT rabbits. Histological examination was carried out in adipose tissue, liver and aorta. They were fixed in formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. The tissues were sliced (4 μm) and stained using hematoxylin-eosin solution. In the adipose tissue, the visceral fat accumulated, and the size of adipose cells was enlarged in PHT rabbits. The liver of the PHT rabbit was fatty and degenerated. In aorta, increased intimal thickness was observed, suggesting the progression of atherosclerosis in the PHT rabbit. This study suggests the important role of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in atherosclerosis. By using PHT rabbits, the effects of hypertriglyceridemia on health and diseases could be evaluated precisely. Full article
Open AccessArticle Selenium Fortification of an Italian Rice Cultivar via Foliar Fertilization with Sodium Selenate and Its Effects on Human Serum Selenium Levels and on Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase Activity
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1251-1261; doi:10.3390/nu6031251
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
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Abstract
Selenium food fortification could be a cost-effective strategy to counteract the inadequacy of selenium intake among the Italian population. In this study, the effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate of an Italian rice cultivar and the increase of serum selenium and [...] Read more.
Selenium food fortification could be a cost-effective strategy to counteract the inadequacy of selenium intake among the Italian population. In this study, the effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate of an Italian rice cultivar and the increase of serum selenium and of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after intake of fortified rice, have been evaluated. The effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate (50 g Se/ha) vs. water was studied. Moreover, in a randomized, double-blind study, 10 healthy women supplemented their usual diet with a daily dose of 80 g of Se-enriched-rice and 10 matched-women with 80 g of regular rice. Before, after 5 and 20 days of supplementation, serum Se and GPx-activity were evaluated. The mean selenium content in Se-enriched-rice was 1.64 ± 0.28 μg/g, while in regular rice it was 0.36 ± 0.15 μg/g (p < 0.001). A significant increase of serum Se and GPx-activity was observed only in the intervention group and only after 20 days. The results show that selenium fortification of rice can be achieved with foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and that the 20 days intake of this Se-enriched-rice increases the serum selenium levels and GPx-activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Polyphenol Antioxidants on Cycling Performance and Cardiovascular Function
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1273-1292; doi:10.3390/nu6031273
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
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Abstract
This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. [...] Read more.
This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT) following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12). Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61). Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1318-1332; doi:10.3390/nu6031318
Received: 14 January 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of studies comparing nutritional quality of restrictive diets is limited. Data on vegan subjects are especially lacking. It was the aim of the present study to compare the quality and the contributing components of vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous [...] Read more.
The number of studies comparing nutritional quality of restrictive diets is limited. Data on vegan subjects are especially lacking. It was the aim of the present study to compare the quality and the contributing components of vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Dietary intake was estimated using a cross-sectional online survey with a 52-items food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated as indicators for diet quality. After analysis of the diet questionnaire and the FFQ, 1475 participants were classified as vegans (n = 104), vegetarians (n = 573), semi-vegetarians (n = 498), pesco-vegetarians (n = 145), and omnivores (n = 155). The most restricted diet, i.e., the vegan diet, had the lowest total energy intake, better fat intake profile, lowest protein and highest dietary fiber intake in contrast to the omnivorous diet. Calcium intake was lowest for the vegans and below national dietary recommendations. The vegan diet received the highest index values and the omnivorous the lowest for HEI-2010 and MDS. Typical aspects of a vegan diet (high fruit and vegetable intake, low sodium intake, and low intake of saturated fat) contributed substantially to the total score, independent of the indexing system used. The score for the more prudent diets (vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and pesco-vegetarians) differed as a function of the used indexing system but they were mostly better in terms of nutrient quality than the omnivores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan diets and Human health)

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Open AccessReview Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1: Friend or Foe to Female Metabolism?
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 950-973; doi:10.3390/nu6030950
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 8 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 3 March 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding vitamin A-dependent regulation of sex-specific differences in metabolic diseases, inflammation, and certain cancers. We focus on the characterization of the aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 family of enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3) that catalyze conversion of retinaldehyde [...] Read more.
In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding vitamin A-dependent regulation of sex-specific differences in metabolic diseases, inflammation, and certain cancers. We focus on the characterization of the aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 family of enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3) that catalyze conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. Additionally, we propose a “horizontal transfer of signaling” from estrogen to retinoids through the action of ALDH1A1. Although estrogen does not directly influence expression of Aldh1a1, it has the ability to suppress Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3, thereby establishing a female-specific mechanism for retinoic acid generation in target tissues. ALDH1A1 regulates adipogenesis, abdominal fat formation, glucose tolerance, and suppression of thermogenesis in adipocytes; in B cells, ALDH1A1 plays a protective role by inducing oncogene suppressors Rara and Pparg. Considering the conflicting responses of Aldh1a1 in a multitude of physiological processes, only tissue-specific regulation of Aldh1a1 can result in therapeutic effects. We have shown through successful implantation of tissue-specific Aldh1a1−/− preadipocytes that thermogenesis can be induced in wild-type adipose tissues to resolve diet-induced visceral obesity in females. We will briefly discuss the emerging role of ALDH1A1 in multiple myeloma, the regulation of reproduction, and immune responses, and conclude by discussing the role of ALDH1A1 in future therapeutic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
Figures

Open AccessReview Intermittent Feeding Schedules—Behavioural Consequences and Potential Clinical Significance
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 985-1002; doi:10.3390/nu6030985
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
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Abstract
Food availability and associated sensory cues such as olfaction are known to trigger a range of hormonal and behavioural responses. When food availability is predictable these physiological and behavioural responses can become entrained to set times and occur in anticipation of food [...] Read more.
Food availability and associated sensory cues such as olfaction are known to trigger a range of hormonal and behavioural responses. When food availability is predictable these physiological and behavioural responses can become entrained to set times and occur in anticipation of food rather than being dependent on the food-related cues. Here we summarise the range of physiological and behavioural responses to food when the time of its availability is unpredictable, and consider the potential to manipulate feeding patterns for benefit in metabolic and mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorder and Obesity)
Open AccessReview Heme, an Essential Nutrient from Dietary Proteins, Critically Impacts Diverse Physiological and Pathological Processes
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1080-1102; doi:10.3390/nu6031080
Received: 27 November 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heme constitutes 95% of functional iron in the human body, as well as two-thirds of the average person’s iron intake in developed countries. Hence, a wide range of epidemiological studies have focused on examining the association of dietary heme intake, mainly from [...] Read more.
Heme constitutes 95% of functional iron in the human body, as well as two-thirds of the average person’s iron intake in developed countries. Hence, a wide range of epidemiological studies have focused on examining the association of dietary heme intake, mainly from red meat, with the risks of common diseases. High heme intake is associated with increased risk of several cancers, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer. Likewise, the evidence for increased risks of type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease associated with high heme intake is compelling. Furthermore, recent comparative metabolic and molecular studies of lung cancer cells showed that cancer cells require increased intracellular heme biosynthesis and uptake to meet the increased demand for oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins. Increased levels of hemoproteins in turn lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy generation, thereby fueling cancer cell progression. Together, both epidemiological and molecular studies support the idea that heme positively impacts cancer progression. However, it is also worth noting that heme deficiency can cause serious diseases in humans, such as anemia, porphyrias, and Alzheimer’s disease. This review attempts to summarize the latest literature in understanding the role of dietary heme intake and heme function in diverse diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1209-1222; doi:10.3390/nu6031209
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 21 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A is a key dietary component that plays a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system. Natural and synthetic analogs of retinol, called retinoids, have generally been associated with the cell [...] Read more.
Retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A is a key dietary component that plays a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system. Natural and synthetic analogs of retinol, called retinoids, have generally been associated with the cell differentiation via retinoic acid which is the most potent metabolite of retinol. However, a direct function of retinol has not been fully investigated. New evidence has now emerged that retinol supports the self-renewal of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), germ line stem cells (GSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) by activating the endogenous machinery for self-renewal by a retinoic acid independent mechanism. The studies have also revealed that stem cells do not contain enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing retinol into retinoic acid. This new function of retinol may have important implications for stem cell biology which can be exploited for quantitative production of pure population of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine as well as clinical applications for cancer therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
Open AccessReview Metabolic Interactions between Vitamin A and Conjugated Linoleic Acid
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1262-1272; doi:10.3390/nu6031262
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
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Abstract
Lipid-soluble molecules share several aspects of their physiology due to their common adaptations to a hydrophilic environment, and may interact to regulate their action in a tissue-specific manner. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid with a conjugated diene structure [...] Read more.
Lipid-soluble molecules share several aspects of their physiology due to their common adaptations to a hydrophilic environment, and may interact to regulate their action in a tissue-specific manner. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid with a conjugated diene structure that is found in low concentrations in ruminant products and available as a nutritional supplement. CLA has been shown to increase tissue levels of retinol (vitamin A alcohol) and its sole specific circulating carrier protein retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4). However, the precise mechanism of this action has not been elucidated yet. Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge in this specific area of research and speculate that retinol and CLA may compete for catabolic pathways modulated by the activity of PPAR-α and RXR heterodimer. We also present preliminary data that may position PPAR-α at the crossroads between the metabolism of lipids and vitamin A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
Open AccessReview Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1293-1317; doi:10.3390/nu6031293
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent [...] Read more.
The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflammatory responses that prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. Moreover, interesting in vivo and clinical studies with the marine antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (present in salmon, shrimp, and lobster) have shown promising results against free radical-promoted neurodegenerative processes and cognition loss. This review presents the state-of-the-art applications of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and astaxanthin as nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases associated with exacerbated oxidative stress in CNS. The fundamental “neurohormesis” principle is discussed throughout this paper. Finally, new perspectives for the application of a natural combination of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents (found in krill oil) are also presented herewith. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Neuroscience)

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Barnard, N., et al. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2014, 6, 897-910
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1181; doi:10.3390/nu6031181
Received: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract We have found two inadvertent errors in our paper published in Nutrients [1]. [...] Full article

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