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Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1029-1037; doi:10.3390/nu6031029
Article

Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Chronic Kidney Disease

1,* , 1
, 2
, 3
, 1
, 1
, 1
 and 3
1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina 98123, Italy 2 Department of Economical, Business and Environmental Sciences and Quantitative Methods, University of Messina, Messina 98123, Italy 3 Department of Biochemical, Physiological and Nutritional Sciences, University of Messina, Messina 98123, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient: Gene Interactions)
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Abstract

FokI and BsmI polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are regarded as reliable markers of disturbed vitamin D signaling pathway. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a strong cardiovascular risk marker in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Since BsmI polymorphism has been associated with LVH in ESRD patients, we addressed this study in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis. One hundred and forty five patients with CKD stage 3 were genotyped for FokI and BsmI VDR polymorphisms, in order to assess the relationships between these VDR polymorphisms, some markers of mineral bone disorders, and LVH measured by echocardiography. Patients bearing either the Ff heterozygous or FF homozygous genotype had significantly higher PTH values than those bearing the ff genotype. The relationships between VDR genotypes and LVH revealed a highly significant association of the BsmI Bb heterozygous genotype with LVH. In patients with CKD stage 3 BsmI B allele was independently related to LVH. Since LVH is a frequent finding in dialysis population due to several mechanisms, the presence of the same relationship in patients with CKD strengthens the hypothesis that alterations of vitamin D signaling are implicated in LVH development in patients with renal diseases.
Keywords: vitamin D receptor; gene polymorphisms; left ventricular hypertrophy; parathormone; chronic kidney disease vitamin D receptor; gene polymorphisms; left ventricular hypertrophy; parathormone; chronic kidney disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Santoro, D.; Gagliostro, G.; Alibrandi, A.; Ientile, R.; Bellinghieri, G.; Savica, V.; Buemi, M.; Caccamo, D. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1029-1037.

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