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Special Issue "Nutrition and Neuroscience"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Kevin D. Laugero (Website)

Stress Biology and Nutrition Research Laboratory Obesity and Metabolism Research Unit, Western Human Nutrition Research Center, ARS/USDA Department of Nutrition, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Interests: stress physiology; nutrition; neuroendocrinology; neurobiology; energy metabolism

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • CNS
  • brain
  • food
  • macronutrients
  • micronutrients
  • diet Patterns
  • dieting
  • neuropeptide
  • neurotransmitter
  • plasticity
  • stress (psychological)
  • cognition
  • executive function
  • brain imaging (fMRI; PET; other)
  • depression
  • anxiety
  • addiction

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Weight Status and Psychological Distress in a Mediterranean Spanish Population: A Symmetric U-Shaped Relationship
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1662-1677; doi:10.3390/nu6041662
Received: 14 February 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 10 April 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity) should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress [...] Read more.
Psychological disorders in people with extreme weight (low weight or obesity) should be taken into consideration by health professionals in order to practice an effective treatment to these patients. This study evaluates the association between body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress in 563 inhabitants of Málaga (South of Spain). Participants were classified in four categories of BMI: Underweight (BMI <18.5 Kg/m2), Normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.99 Kg/m2), Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.99 Kg/m2) and Obesity (BMI >30 Kg/m2). Psychological distress was measured with the Spanish version of the Derogatis’ Symptoms Checklist Revised (SCL-90-R). We observed a symmetric U-shaped relationship between weight status and psychological distress in all SCL-90-R dimensions (p for quadratic trend <0.001) for both men and women. Participants with extreme weight showed the worst psychological status, and participants with normal weight exhibited the best. We found no statistically significant differences between underweight and obese participants in 9 of the 10 SCL-90-R dimensions analyzed among men, and in 8 of the 10 dimensions among women. Underweight and obese participants showed no gender differences in psychological distress levels. Psychological treatment of Mediterranean people with extreme weight, should consider underweight and obese patients at the same level of psychological distress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Neuroscience)
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Open AccessArticle Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 90-110; doi:10.3390/nu6010090
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 14 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses [...] Read more.
Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05), and ferritin responders (n = 17) vs. non-responders (n = 26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Neuroscience)
Open AccessArticle The Prevalence of Antibodies against Wheat and Milk Proteins in Blood Donors and Their Contribution to Neuroimmune Reactivities
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 15-36; doi:10.3390/nu6010015
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 6 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to look for the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against two widely consumed foods, wheat and milk, in a relatively large number of specimens. As wheat, milk, and their antigens have been found to [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to look for the presence of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against two widely consumed foods, wheat and milk, in a relatively large number of specimens. As wheat, milk, and their antigens have been found to be involved in neuroimmune disorders, we measured the co-occurrence of their antibodies against various neural antigens. We assessed the reactivity of sera from 400 donors to wheat and milk proteins, GAD-65, cerebellar, MBP, and MOG. Statistical analysis showed significant clustering when certain wheat and milk protein antibodies were cross-referenced with neural antibodies. Approximately half of the sera with antibody elevation against gliadin reacted significantly with GAD-65 and cerebellar peptides; about half of the sera with elevated antibodies against α + β-casein and milk butyrophilin also showed antibody elevation against MBP and MOG. Inhibition studies showed that only two out of four of the samples with elevated cerebellar or MOG antibodies could be inhibited by gliadin or α + β-casein, confirming individual variation in epitope recognition. We conclude that a subgroup of blood donors, due to a breakdown in immunological tolerance, may react and produce significant levels of antibodies (p-values less than 0.05) against wheat and milk antigens that cross-react with different neural antigens, which may have broader implications in the induction of neuroimmune reactivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Neuroscience)
Figures

Open AccessArticle “Jello® Shots” and Cocktails as Ethanol Vehicles: Parametric Studies with High- and Low-Saccharin-Consuming Rats
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4685-4714; doi:10.3390/nu5114685
Received: 22 October 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol [...] Read more.
Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose); ethanol concentration (4% or 10%); and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib.) during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Neuroscience)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1293-1317; doi:10.3390/nu6031293
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent [...] Read more.
The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflammatory responses that prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. Moreover, interesting in vivo and clinical studies with the marine antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (present in salmon, shrimp, and lobster) have shown promising results against free radical-promoted neurodegenerative processes and cognition loss. This review presents the state-of-the-art applications of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and astaxanthin as nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases associated with exacerbated oxidative stress in CNS. The fundamental “neurohormesis” principle is discussed throughout this paper. Finally, new perspectives for the application of a natural combination of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents (found in krill oil) are also presented herewith. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Neuroscience)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessOpinion A Nutrient Combination that Can Affect Synapse Formation
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1701-1710; doi:10.3390/nu6041701
Received: 18 March 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (97 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brain neurons form synapses throughout the life span. This process is initiated by neuronal depolarization, however the numbers of synapses thus formed depend on brain levels of three key nutrients—uridine, the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, and choline. Given together, these nutrients accelerate [...] Read more.
Brain neurons form synapses throughout the life span. This process is initiated by neuronal depolarization, however the numbers of synapses thus formed depend on brain levels of three key nutrients—uridine, the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, and choline. Given together, these nutrients accelerate formation of synaptic membrane, the major component of synapses. In infants, when synaptogenesis is maximal, relatively large amounts of all three nutrients are provided in bioavailable forms (e.g., uridine in the UMP of mothers’ milk and infant formulas). However, in adults the uridine in foods, mostly present at RNA, is not bioavailable, and no food has ever been compelling demonstrated to elevate plasma uridine levels. Moreover, the quantities of DHA and choline in regular foods can be insufficient for raising their blood levels enough to promote optimal synaptogenesis. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the need for extra quantities of the three nutrients is enhanced, both because their basal plasma levels may be subnormal (reflecting impaired hepatic synthesis), and because especially high brain levels are needed for correcting the disease-related deficiencies in synaptic membrane and synapses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Neuroscience)

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