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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Colin Binns (Website)

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, PO Box U1987 Perth WA 6845, Australia
Interests: public health nutrition; development of Dietary Guidelines; breastfeeding policy
Guest Editor
Dr. Mi Kyung Lee

Faculty of Health Sciences Murdoch University, 90 South St, Murdoch WA 6150, Australia
Phone: +61893607442
Interests: nutrition education; nutrition in a multicultural society; infant nutrition; public health nutrition

Special Issue Information

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Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • paediatric
  • infant nutrition
  • child nutrition
  • breastfeeding
  • breastmilk
  • children
  • iron
  • iodine
  • growth
  • infant foods
  • complementary foods
  • complementary feeding

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development and Pilot Testing of 24-Hour Multiple-Pass Recall to Assess Dietary Intake of Toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-Born Mothers Living in Norway
Nutrients 2014, 6(6), 2333-2347; doi:10.3390/nu6062333
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 19 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop, test, and evaluate a 24-h recall procedure to assess the dietary intake of toddlers of Somali- and Iraqi-born mothers living in Norway. A protocol for a 24-h multiple-pass recall procedure, registration forms, and visual tools (a picture library for food identification and portion size estimation) was developed and tested in 12 mothers from Somalia and Iraq with children aged 10–21 months. Five female field workers were recruited and trained to conduct the interviews. Evaluation data for the 24-h recall procedure were collected from both the mothers and the field workers. Nutrient intake was calculated using a Norwegian dietary calculation system. Each child’s estimated energy intake was compared with its estimated energy requirement. Both the mothers and the field workers found the method feasible and the visual tools useful. The estimated energy intake corresponded well with the estimated energy requirement for most of the children (within mean ± 2 SD, except for three). The pilot study identified the need for additional foods in the picture library and some crucial aspects in training and supervising the field workers to reduce sources of error in the data collection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Iron Stores of Breastfed Infants during the First Year of Life
Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 2023-2034; doi:10.3390/nu6052023
Received: 4 March 2014 / Revised: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. [...] Read more.
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L) began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Urinary Metabolite Profiles in Premature Infants Show Early Postnatal Metabolic Adaptation and Maturation
Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 1913-1930; doi:10.3390/nu6051913
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g) randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy [...] Read more.
Objectives: Early nutrition influences metabolic programming and long-term health. We explored the urinary metabolite profiles of 48 premature infants (birth weight < 1500 g) randomized to an enhanced or a standard diet during neonatal hospitalization. Methods: Metabolomics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was conducted on urine samples obtained during the first week of life and thereafter fortnightly. Results: The intervention group received significantly higher amounts of energy, protein, lipids, vitamin A, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as compared to the control group. Enhanced nutrition did not appear to affect the urine profiles to an extent exceeding individual variation. However, in all infants the glucogenic amino acids glycine, threonine, hydroxyproline and tyrosine increased substantially during the early postnatal period, along with metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (succinate, oxoglutarate, fumarate and citrate). The metabolite changes correlated with postmenstrual age. Moreover, we observed elevated threonine and glycine levels in first-week urine samples of the small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age) as compared to the appropriate for gestational age infants. Conclusion: This first nutri-metabolomics study in premature infants demonstrates that the physiological adaptation during the fetal-postnatal transition as well as maturation influences metabolism during the breastfeeding period. Elevated glycine and threonine levels were found in the first week urine samples of the SGA infants and emerged as potential biomarkers of an altered metabolic phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males
Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 1886-1898; doi:10.3390/nu6051886
Received: 21 February 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 26 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW) measured using single-frequency (SF) and multi-frequency (MF) modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H) dilution [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW) measured using single-frequency (SF) and multi-frequency (MF) modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H) dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz) and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF) and intra-cellular fluid (ICF) values differed significantly (p < 0.01) between the different postures in both groups. In addition, while estimated TBW in adult males using the MF mode was significantly (p < 0.01) greater than the result from the dilution technique, TBW estimated using the SF mode and prediction equation was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in boys. Measurement posture may not affect estimation of TBW in boys and adult males, however, body fluid shifts may still occur. In addition, technical factors, including selection of prediction equation, may be important when TBW is estimated from measured impedance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Ethnic Variation in Breastfeeding and Complimentary Feeding in the Republic of Ireland
Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 1832-1849; doi:10.3390/nu6051832
Received: 14 February 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Early nutrition plays a pivotal role in long-term health. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life, with the gradual introduction of solids after this period. However, studies in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) have [...] Read more.
Early nutrition plays a pivotal role in long-term health. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life, with the gradual introduction of solids after this period. However, studies in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) have shown poor compliance with guidelines. The ROI continues to have one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide. Our objective was to analyse differences in breastfeeding and complimentary feeding behaviours between Irish and non-Irish mothers residing in the ROI, as well as the role of acculturation on these behaviours, using the national longitudinal study, Growing Up in Ireland (GUI). Mothers (n = 11,134) residing in the ROI were interviewed when their infants were nine months of age. The percentage of Irish mothers who initiated breastfeeding was 49.5%, as opposed to 88.1% among the non-Irish cohort (p < 0.001). Breastfeeding initiation reduced from 89.4% of non-Irish mothers who had arrived within the last year to five years ago to 67.5% for those who had arrived 11 to >20 years ago (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that cultural differences are an important factor in shaping patterns of infant feeding in the ROI. Reviewing existing support and education policies for parents is required to achieve the implementation of desirable infant feeding practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: Findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1691-1700; doi:10.3390/nu6041691
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed by binary [...] Read more.
Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle High Plasma Homocysteine Increases Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in 6 to 8 Year Old Children in Rural Nepal
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1649-1661; doi:10.3390/nu6041649
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (581 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to [...] Read more.
Little attention has been given to the association of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. We have evaluated the risk of MetS with plasma Hcy in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old rural Nepalese children, born to mothers who had participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial. We assessed Hcy in plasma from a random selection of n = 1000 children and determined the relationship of elevated Hcy (>12.0 μmol/L) to MetS (defined as the presence of any three of the following: abdominal adiposity (waist circumference ≥ 85th percentile of the study population), high plasma glucose (≥85th percentile), high systolic or diastolic blood pressure (≥90th percentile of reference population), triglyceride ≥ 1.7 mmol/L and high density lipoprotein < 0.9 mmol/L.) and its components. There was an increased risk of low high-density lipoproteins (HDL), [odds ratios (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.08–2.88; p = 0.020], high blood pressure [OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10–2.46; p = 0.015] and high body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.33–2.96; p = 0.001] with elevated Hcy. We observed an increased risk of MetS (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06–2.90; p = 0.029) with elevated Hcy in age and gender-adjusted logistic regression models. High plasma Hcy is associated with increased risk of MetS and may have implications for chronic disease later in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Associations between Infant Feeding Practice Prior to Six Months and Body Mass Index at Six Years of Age
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1608-1617; doi:10.3390/nu6041608
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 10 March 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy [...] Read more.
Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0–12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1539-1553; doi:10.3390/nu6041539
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [...] Read more.
The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR) interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79). The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1182-1193; doi:10.3390/nu6031182
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered [...] Read more.
The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OH)D < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9–12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3–165.5). Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OH)D (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L) than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L), 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L) and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L). Five of six infants with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1038-1062; doi:10.3390/nu6031038
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the [...] Read more.
The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 815-828; doi:10.3390/nu6020815
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out [...] Read more.
There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5%) and zinc (40.4%), while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2%) and fish oil (42.3%). In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Predictors of Breastfeeding Duration among Women in Kuwait: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 711-728; doi:10.3390/nu6020711
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 28 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in [...] Read more.
The purposes of this paper are to report the prevalence of breastfeeding to six months among women in Kuwait and to determine the factors that are associated with the duration of breastfeeding. A cohort of 373 women recruited from maternity wards in four hospitals in Kuwait city were followed from birth to 26 weeks postpartum. The association of any and full breastfeeding duration and predictor variables were explored using multivariate Cox’s proportional hazards models. At six months, 39% of all infants were receiving some breast milk and only 2% of infants had been fully breastfed to 26 weeks. Women born in other Arab countries were less likely to discontinue breastfeeding than women born in Kuwait. Other factors positively associated with breastfeeding duration were level of maternal education, higher parity, infant being demand fed in hospital and a preference for breastfeeding on the part of the infant’s father and maternal grandmother. The introduction of a pacifier before four weeks of age and the mother intending to return to work by six months were negatively associated with duration. These findings present a number of opportunities for prolonging breastfeeding duration in Kuwait. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Low Blood Zinc, Iron, and Other Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Behavior Problems in Preschoolers
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 530-545; doi:10.3390/nu6020530
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing [...] Read more.
Previous research supports the link among malnutrition, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral outcomes; however, less research has focused on micronutrient deficiencies. This study investigates whether micronutrient deficiencies, specifically blood zinc and iron levels, will be associated with increased behavior problem scores, including internalizing and externalizing behaviors. 1314 Children (55% boys and 45% girls) from the Jintan Preschool Cohort in China participated in this study. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for zinc and iron when the children were 3–5 years old. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which was completed by the parents when children were in their last months of preschool (mean age 5.6 years). General linear multivariate modeling was used, with adjustment for important sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that low zinc levels alone (p = 0.024) and combined low zinc and iron levels (p = 0.022) are significantly associated with increased reports of total behavior problems. We did not find an association between low iron and behavior problems. With regards to sociodemographics, living in the suburbs is associated with increased internalizing problems, while higher mother’s education and being female were associated with decreased externalizing problems. This study suggests that micronutrient deficiencies and sociodemographic facts are associated with behavior problems in preschoolers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 342-354; doi:10.3390/nu6010342
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 14 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy [...] Read more.
Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake by Dutch 1- to 3-Year-Old Children at Childcare and at Home
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 304-318; doi:10.3390/nu6010304
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 8 January 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of the current study was to assess dietary intake in a large sample (N = 1016) of Dutch toddlers (1–3 years old), both at childcare and at home. Dietary intake during two weekdays was recorded using an observation format [...] Read more.
The goal of the current study was to assess dietary intake in a large sample (N = 1016) of Dutch toddlers (1–3 years old), both at childcare and at home. Dietary intake during two weekdays was recorded using an observation format applied by childcare staff for intake at childcare, and partially pre-coded dietary journals filled out by parents for intake at home. Children’s intake of energy, macronutrients and energy balance-related food groups (fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks, savoury snacks) were compared with Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, differences between the dietary intake by various subgroups (based on gender, age, childcare attendance, socio-economic status of childcare centre) were explored using multilevel regression analyses, adjusting for nesting of children within centres. Energy intake was high relative to dietary guidelines, and children consumed more or less equal amounts of energy at home and at childcare. Dietary fibre, fruit and vegetable and snack intakes were low. Intake at childcare mainly consisted of carbohydrates, while intake at home contained more proteins and fat. The findings imply various opportunities for childcare centres to improve children’s dietary intake, such as providing fruit and vegetables at snacking moments. In addition, the findings underline the importance of assessing dietary intake over a whole day, both at childcare and at home, to allow intake to be compared with dietary guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Introducing Solid Foods to Infants in the Asia Pacific Region
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 276-288; doi:10.3390/nu6010276
Received: 17 November 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 6 January 2014
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Abstract
For infants’ optimal growth and development, the introduction of nutritionally suitable solid foods at the appropriate time is essential. However, less attention has been paid to this stage of infant life when compared with studies on breastfeeding initiation and duration. The practice [...] Read more.
For infants’ optimal growth and development, the introduction of nutritionally suitable solid foods at the appropriate time is essential. However, less attention has been paid to this stage of infant life when compared with studies on breastfeeding initiation and duration. The practice of introducing solid foods, including the types of foods given to infants, in the Asia Pacific region was reviewed. In total nine studies using the same questionnaire on infant feeding practices were analysed to gain a better understanding of trends in the introduction of solid foods in this region. All studies showed less than optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding indicating an earlier time of introduction of solid foods than recommended by the WHO. Most mothers commonly used rice or rice products as the first feed. In many studies, the timing of introducing solid foods was associated with breastfeeding duration. Compared with the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for infants aged above six months, rice/rice products are of lower energy density and have insufficient micronutrients unless they have been fortified. Although the timing of introducing solid foods to infants is important in terms of preventing later health problems, the quality of the foods should also be considered. Recommendations to improve the introduction of solid foods include measures to discourage prelacteal feeding, facilitating breastfeeding education and providing better information on healthier food choices for infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Effect of Two Human Milk Fortifiers on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 261-275; doi:10.3390/nu6010261
Received: 26 October 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of human milk fortifiers (HMF) helps to meet the high nutritional requirements of the human milk-fed premature infant. Previously available powdered products have not met the protein requirements of the preterm infant population and many neonatologists add powder protein modulars [...] Read more.
The use of human milk fortifiers (HMF) helps to meet the high nutritional requirements of the human milk-fed premature infant. Previously available powdered products have not met the protein requirements of the preterm infant population and many neonatologists add powder protein modulars to help meet protein needs. The use of powdered products is discouraged in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) due to concern for invasive infection. The use of a commercially available acidified liquid product with higher protein content was implemented to address these two concerns. During the course of this implementation, poor growth and clinically significant acidosis of infants on Acidified Liquid HMF (ALHMF) was observed. The purpose of this study was to quantify those observations by comparing infant outcomes between groups receiving the ALHMF vs. infants receiving powdered HMF (PHMF). A retrospective chart review compared outcomes of human milk-fed premature infants <2000 g receiving the ALHMF (n = 23) and the PHMF (n = 46). Infant growth, enteral feeding tolerance and provision, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), metabolic acidosis, and diaper dermatitis were compared between the two groups. No infants were excluded from this study based on acuity. Use of ALHMF resulted in a higher incidence of metabolic acidosis (p = 0.002). Growth while on HMF as measured in both g/kg/day (10.59 vs. 15.37, p < 0.0001) and in g/day (23.66 vs. 31.27, p = 0.0001) was slower in the ALHMF group, on increased mean cal/kg/day (128.7 vs. 117.3, p = 0.13) with nearly twice as many infants on the ALHMF requiring increased fortification of enteral feedings beyond 24 cal/ounce to promote adequate growth (48% vs. 26%, p = 0.10). Although we were not powered to study NEC as a primary outcome, NEC was significantly increased in the ALHMF group. (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.03). Use of a LHMF in an unrestricted NICU population resulted in an increase in clinical complications within a high-acuity NICU, including metabolic acidosis and poor growth. Although further research is needed to assess outcomes among infants with a variety of clinical acuities, gestational ages, and weights to confirm these findings, based on this experience, caution is urged to avoid potential risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Breastfeeding and Active Bonding Protects against Children’s Internalizing Behavior Problems
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 76-89; doi:10.3390/nu6010076
Received: 4 October 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This [...] Read more.
Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This paper aims to explore the effects of both breastfeeding and mother-child interactions on child behavioral outcomes at a later age. Children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study (N = 1267), at age six years old were assessed, along with their parents. Children who were breastfed exclusively for a period of time in the presence of active bonding were compared to those who were breastfed in the absence of active bonding as well as to children who were not exclusively breastfed, with or without active bonding. Results from ANOVA and GLM, using SPSS20, indicate that children who were breastfed and whose mothers actively engaged with them displayed the lowest risk of internalizing problems (mean = 10.01, SD = 7.21), while those who were neither exclusively breastfed nor exposed to active bonding had the least protection against later internalizing problems (mean = 12.79, SD = 8.14). The effect of breastfeeding on internalizing pathology likely represents a biosocial and holistic effect of physiological, and nutritive, and maternal-infant bonding benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Exclusive Breastfeeding and Developmental and Behavioral Status in Early Childhood
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4414-4428; doi:10.3390/nu5114414
Received: 27 August 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
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Abstract
Breastfeeding during infancy may have beneficial effects on various developmental outcomes in childhood. In this study, exclusively breastfed infants were randomly assigned to receive complementary foods from the age of 4 months in addition to breast milk (CF, n = 60), or [...] Read more.
Breastfeeding during infancy may have beneficial effects on various developmental outcomes in childhood. In this study, exclusively breastfed infants were randomly assigned to receive complementary foods from the age of 4 months in addition to breast milk (CF, n = 60), or to exclusively breastfeed to 6 months (EBF, n = 59). At 18 months and again at 30–35 months of age, the children were evaluated with the Parent’s Evaluation of Developmental Status questionnaire (PEDS) and the Brigance Screens-II. The parents completed the PEDS questionnaire at both time intervals and the children underwent the Brigance Screens-II at 30–35 months. At 30–35 months, no significant differences were seen in developmental scores from the Brigance screening test (p = 0.82). However, at 30–35 months a smaller percentage of parents in group CF (2%) had concerns about their children’s gross motor development compared to those in group EBF (19%; p = 0.01), which remained significant when adjusted for differences in pre-randomization characteristics (p = 0.03). No sustained effect of a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was seen on selected measures of developmental and behavioral status at 18 months, although at 30–35 months, a smaller percentage of parents of children introduced to complementary foods at four months of age expressed concerns about their gross motor development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available

Review

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Open AccessReview Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4715-4740; doi:10.3390/nu5114715
Received: 4 September 2013 / Revised: 9 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evidence supporting the impact of therapeutic zinc supplementation on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children under five is largely derived from studies conducted in South Asia. China experiences a substantial portion of the global burden of diarrhea, but the impact [...] Read more.
Evidence supporting the impact of therapeutic zinc supplementation on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children under five is largely derived from studies conducted in South Asia. China experiences a substantial portion of the global burden of diarrhea, but the impact of zinc treatment among children under five has not been well documented by previously published systematic reviews on the topic. We therefore conducted a systematic literature review, which included an exhaustive search of the Chinese literature, in an effort to update previously published estimates of the effect of therapeutic zinc. We conducted systematic literature searches in various databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and abstracted relevant data from studies meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used STATA 12.0 to pool select outcomes and to generate estimates of percentage difference and relative risk comparing outcomes between zinc and control groups. We identified 89 Chinese and 15 non-Chinese studies for the review, including studies in 10 countries from all WHO geographic regions, and analyzed a total of 18,822 diarrhea cases (9469 zinc and 9353 control). None of the included Chinese studies had previously been included in published pooled effect estimates. Chinese and non-Chinese studies reported the effect of therapeutic zinc supplementation on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration and proportion of episodes lasting beyond three and seven days. Pooling Chinese and non-Chinese studies yielded an overall 26% (95% CI: 20%−32%) reduction in the estimated relative risk of diarrhea lasting beyond three days among zinc-treated children. Studies conducted in and outside China report reductions in morbidity as a result of oral therapeutic zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea among children under five years of age. The WHO recommendation for zinc treatment of diarrhea episodes should be supported in all low- and middle-income countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition) Print Edition available

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