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Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1251-1261; doi:10.3390/nu6031251

Selenium Fortification of an Italian Rice Cultivar via Foliar Fertilization with Sodium Selenate and Its Effects on Human Serum Selenium Levels and on Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase Activity

1
Department of Gastroenterology, Policlinico di Monza, Monza 20900, Italy
2
Department of Applied Health Sciences, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona (ASP) di Pavia, University of Pavia, Pavia 27100, Italy
3
Laboratorio di Misure Ambientali e Tossicologiche, Fondazione S. Maugeri, Istituto Scientifico di Pavia, Pavia 27100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
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Abstract

Selenium food fortification could be a cost-effective strategy to counteract the inadequacy of selenium intake among the Italian population. In this study, the effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate of an Italian rice cultivar and the increase of serum selenium and of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity after intake of fortified rice, have been evaluated. The effect of foliar fertilization with sodium selenate (50 g Se/ha) vs. water was studied. Moreover, in a randomized, double-blind study, 10 healthy women supplemented their usual diet with a daily dose of 80 g of Se-enriched-rice and 10 matched-women with 80 g of regular rice. Before, after 5 and 20 days of supplementation, serum Se and GPx-activity were evaluated. The mean selenium content in Se-enriched-rice was 1.64 ± 0.28 μg/g, while in regular rice it was 0.36 ± 0.15 μg/g (p < 0.001). A significant increase of serum Se and GPx-activity was observed only in the intervention group and only after 20 days. The results show that selenium fortification of rice can be achieved with foliar fertilization with sodium selenate and that the 20 days intake of this Se-enriched-rice increases the serum selenium levels and GPx-activity.
Keywords: food fortification; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidise; functional food; rice; trace element; selenium food fortification; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidise; functional food; rice; trace element; selenium
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Giacosa, A.; Faliva, M.A.; Perna, S.; Minoia, C.; Ronchi, A.; Rondanelli, M. Selenium Fortification of an Italian Rice Cultivar via Foliar Fertilization with Sodium Selenate and Its Effects on Human Serum Selenium Levels and on Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase Activity. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1251-1261.

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