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Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1293-1317; doi:10.3390/nu6031293
Review

Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil

1,2,* , 1,3
 and 2,3
Received: 31 October 2013; in revised form: 24 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Neuroscience)
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Abstract: The consumption of marine fishes and general seafood has long been recommended by several medical authorities as a long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Most of the neurological benefits provided by frequent seafood consumption comes from adequate uptake of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, and antioxidants. Optimal n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratios allow efficient inflammatory responses that prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. Moreover, interesting in vivo and clinical studies with the marine antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (present in salmon, shrimp, and lobster) have shown promising results against free radical-promoted neurodegenerative processes and cognition loss. This review presents the state-of-the-art applications of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and astaxanthin as nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases associated with exacerbated oxidative stress in CNS. The fundamental “neurohormesis” principle is discussed throughout this paper. Finally, new perspectives for the application of a natural combination of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents (found in krill oil) are also presented herewith.
Keywords: seafood; neurodegenerative disorders; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cognition; oxidative stress; natural products; Alzheimer’s; Parkinson’s; hormesis seafood; neurodegenerative disorders; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cognition; oxidative stress; natural products; Alzheimer’s; Parkinson’s; hormesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Barros, M.P.; Poppe, S.C.; Bondan, E.F. Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1293-1317.

AMA Style

Barros MP, Poppe SC, Bondan EF. Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil. Nutrients. 2014; 6(3):1293-1317.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barros, Marcelo P.; Poppe, Sandra C.; Bondan, Eduardo F. 2014. "Neuroprotective Properties of the Marine Carotenoid Astaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Perspectives for the Natural Combination of Both in Krill Oil." Nutrients 6, no. 3: 1293-1317.



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