Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1182-1193; doi:10.3390/nu6031182

Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N

1,* email, 1email, 1email, 2email and 1email
Received: 7 February 2014; in revised form: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Paediatric Nutrition)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OH)D < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9–12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3–165.5). Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OH)D (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L) than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L), 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L) and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L). Five of six infants with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OH)D > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding.
Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D; infant; dietary supplements; fortified foods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thorisdottir, B.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Steingrimsdottir, L.; Palsson, G.I.; Thorsdottir, I. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1182-1193.

AMA Style

Thorisdottir B, Gunnarsdottir I, Steingrimsdottir L, Palsson GI, Thorsdottir I. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N. Nutrients. 2014; 6(3):1182-1193.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thorisdottir, Birna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Palsson, Gestur I.; Thorsdottir, Inga. 2014. "Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N." Nutrients 6, no. 3: 1182-1193.

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