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Special Issue "Sport and Performance Nutrition"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Kelly Pritchett

Department of Nutrition, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Central Washington University, 400 East University Way, Ellensburg, WA 98926, USA
E-Mail
Interests: sports nutrition; post exercise nutrition and recovery; carbohydrates and exercise; female athlete triad; energy availability; vitamin D and athletic performance

Special Issue Information

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Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • carbohydrate
  • protein (synthesis)
  • performance
  • glycogen (resynthesis)
  • exercise recovery
  • ergogenic aids/ supplements
  • hydration
  • pre-exercise feeding
  • athletes
  • sport nutrition
  • training

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Carbohydrate-Dependent, Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Distress
Nutrients 2014, 6(10), 4191-4199; doi:10.3390/nu6104191
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors.
[...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal (GI) problems are a common concern of athletes during intense exercise. Ultimately, these symptoms can impair performance and possibly prevent athletes from winning or even finishing a race. The main causes of GI problems during exercise are mechanical, ischemic and nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, a high intake of carbohydrate and hyperosmolar solutions increases GI problems. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates. This type of CHO intake increases the oxidation rates and can prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. Glucose (6%) or glucose plus fructose (8%–10%) beverages are recommended in order to increase CHO intake while avoiding the gastric emptying delay. Training the gut with high intake of CHO may increase absorption capacity and probably prevent GI distress. CHO mouth rinse may be a good strategy to enhance performance without using GI tract in exercises lasting less than an hour. Future strategies should be investigated comparing different CHO types, doses, and concentration in exercises with the same characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Intervention Restored Menses in Female Athletes with Exercise-Associated Menstrual Dysfunction with Limited Impact on Bone and Muscle Health
Nutrients 2014, 6(8), 3018-3039; doi:10.3390/nu6083018
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) is associated with low energy availability (EA), decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. We investigated whether a 6-month carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO) supplement (360 kcal/day, 54 g CHO/day, 20 g PRO/day) intervention would improve energy status
[...] Read more.
Exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) is associated with low energy availability (EA), decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. We investigated whether a 6-month carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO) supplement (360 kcal/day, 54 g CHO/day, 20 g PRO/day) intervention would improve energy status and musculoskeletal health and restore menses in female athletes (n = 8) with ExMD. At pre/post-intervention, reproductive and thyroid hormones, bone health (BMD, bone mineral content, bone markers), muscle strength/power and protein metabolism markers, profile of mood state (POMS), and energy intake (EI)/energy expenditure (7 day food/activity records) were measured. Eumenorrheic athlete controls with normal menses (Eumen); n = 10) were measured at baseline. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate differences between groups and pre/post-intervention blocking on participants. Improvements in EI (+382 kcal/day; p = 0.12), EA (+417 kcal/day; p = 0.17) and energy balance (EB; +466 kcal/day; p = 0.14) were observed with the intervention but were not statistically significant. ExMD resumed menses (2.6 ± 2.2-months to first menses; 3.5 ± 1.9 cycles); one remaining anovulatory with menses. Female athletes with ExMD for >8 months took longer to resume menses/ovulation and had lower BMD (low spine (ExMD = 3; Eumen = 1); low hip (ExMD = 2)) than those with ExMD for <8 months; for 2 ExMD the intervention improved spinal BMD. POMS fatigue scores were 15% lower in ExMD vs. Eumen (p = 0.17); POMS depression scores improved by 8% in ExMD (p = 0.12). EI, EA, and EB were similar between groups, but the intervention (+360 kcal/day) improved energy status enough to reverse ExMD despite no statistically significant changes in EI. Similar baseline EA and EB between groups suggests that some ExMD athletes are more sensitive to EA and EB fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2931-2945; doi:10.3390/nu6072931
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 5 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05). At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%). There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2493-2508; doi:10.3390/nu6072493
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 8 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were
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The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. The alterations in insulin and cortisol concentrations due to the dietary intervention confirm the concept that the glucostatic mechanism controls the hormonal and metabolic responses to exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans
Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 1981-1992; doi:10.3390/nu6051981
Received: 17 February 2014 / Revised: 30 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either
[...] Read more.
This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM) than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05) and remained elevated (nonsignificant) after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Energy Requirements of US Army Special Operation Forces During Military Training
Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 1945-1955; doi:10.3390/nu6051945
Received: 27 March 2014 / Revised: 19 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Special Operations Forces (SOF) regularly engage in physically demanding combat operations and field training exercises, resulting in high daily energy expenditure, and thus increased energy requirements. However, the majority of studies assessing energy requirements of SOF have been conducted on soldiers going through
[...] Read more.
Special Operations Forces (SOF) regularly engage in physically demanding combat operations and field training exercises, resulting in high daily energy expenditure, and thus increased energy requirements. However, the majority of studies assessing energy requirements of SOF have been conducted on soldiers going through intense SOF initiation training. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the energy expenditure of SOF conducting military training operations. Thirty-one soldiers taking part in Pre-Mission Training (PMT n = 15) and Combat Diver Qualification Courses (CDQC n = 16) volunteered to participate in this observational study. Energy expenditure was determined using doubly labeled water. Body weight (83 ± 7 kg) remained stable during both training periods. Overall energy expenditure adjusted for body composition was 17,606 ± 2326 kJ·day−1. Energy expenditure was 19,110 ± 1468 kJ·day−1 during CDQC and 16,334 ± 2180 kJ·day−1 during PMT, with physical activity levels of 2.6 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 during CDQC and PMT, respectively. Compared to the Military Dietary Reference Intakes for energy (13,598 kJ·day−1), these data are in agreement with previous reports that energy requirement for SOF Soldiers exceed that of the average soldier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Red Ginseng Treatment for Two Weeks Promotes Fat Metabolism during Exercise in Mice
Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 1874-1885; doi:10.3390/nu6051874
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
PURPOSE: Red ginseng (RG) has been reported to improve the blood and organ lipid profile when combined with exercise. However, the effect of RG on energy metabolism during exercise is poorly understood. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether RG treatment alters
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PURPOSE: Red ginseng (RG) has been reported to improve the blood and organ lipid profile when combined with exercise. However, the effect of RG on energy metabolism during exercise is poorly understood. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether RG treatment alters fat utilization during exercise; METHODS: We used seven-week-old ICR mice (n = 42). RG (1 g/kg) was administered orally daily during two weeks of endurance training. All mice were randomized into two groups: training only group (CON group) and training with RG group (RG group). Endurance training consisted of 20~25 m/min on a slope of 8° for one hour five times a week. After a two-week experimental period, we measured substrate utilization during exercise at the same intensity and duration of training using a respiratory calorimetry chamber. Mice were dissected for glycogen measurement of muscles and liver before, immediately after, and one hour after the exercise; RESULT: Fat oxidation during the initial 20 min of the one-hour exercise significantly increased in the RG group compared to the CON group. In addition, the liver glycogen stores significantly decreased immediately after the one-hour exercise compared to at rest in the RG group, but did not differ between immediately after the one-hour exercise and at rest in the RG group. The glycogen concentration in white and red gastrocnemius muscle did not differ between the groups immediately after the one-hour exercise; CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that RG treatment for two weeks promotes fat oxidation and a glycogen-sparing effect during exercise. This might lead to a delay in peripheral fatigue during endurance exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Caffeine Intake May Modulate Inflammation Markers in Trained Rats
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1678-1690; doi:10.3390/nu6041678
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 25 March 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Caffeine is presented in many commercial products and has been proven to induce ergogenic effects in exercise, mainly related to redox status homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress-related adaptation mechanisms. However, most studies have mainly focused on muscle adaptations, and the role of caffeine
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Caffeine is presented in many commercial products and has been proven to induce ergogenic effects in exercise, mainly related to redox status homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress-related adaptation mechanisms. However, most studies have mainly focused on muscle adaptations, and the role of caffeine in different tissues during exercise training has not been fully described. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyze the effects of chronic caffeine intake and exercise training on liver mitochondria functioning and plasma inflammation markers. Rats were divided into control, control/caffeine, exercise, and exercise/caffeine groups. Exercise groups underwent four weeks of swimming training and caffeine groups were supplemented with 6 mg/kg/day. Liver mitochondrial swelling and complex I activity, and plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured. An anti-inflammatory effect of exercise was evidenced by reduced plasma MPO activity. Additionally, caffeine intake alone and combined with exercise decreased the plasma AChE and MPO activities. The per se anti-inflammatory effect of caffeine intake should be highlighted considering its widespread use as an ergogenic aid. Therefore, caffeine seems to interfere on exercise-induced adaptations and could also be used in different exercise-related health treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches
Nutrients 2014, 6(4), 1442-1453; doi:10.3390/nu6041442
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the
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Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Polyphenol Antioxidants on Cycling Performance and Cardiovascular Function
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1273-1292; doi:10.3390/nu6031273
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. Consecutive
[...] Read more.
This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at the end of the supplementation periods. Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory measures were made during exercise. Performance, as measured by a 10 min time trial (TT) following 50 min of moderate intensity cycling, was not different between treatments (PLAC: 292 ± 33 W and PA: 279 ± 38 W, p = 0.12). Gross efficiency, blood lactate, maximal neuromuscular power, and ratings of perceived exertion were also not different between treatments. Similarly, performance on the second day of testing, as assessed by time to fatigue at maximal oxygen consumption, was not different between treatments (PLAC; 377 ± 117 s vs. PA; 364 ± 128 s, p = 0.61). Cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise were not different between treatments on either day of exercise testing. Polyphenol antioxidant supplementation had no impact on exercise performance and did not alter the cardiovascular or thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of High Temperature- and High Pressure-Treated Red Ginseng on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in ICR Mouse
Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1003-1015; doi:10.3390/nu6031003
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 18 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (442 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. Our
[...] Read more.
As previously reported, high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) contain higher contents of phenolic compounds and protect C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes against oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of HRG on oxidative stress using a mouse model. Our results show that the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, hepatic malondialdehyde in the HRG group were significantly lower than those of the exercise groups supplemented with commercial red ginseng (CRG) or not supplemented. The muscular glycogen level, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of the HGR group were higher than that of the CGR group. Furthermore, the HRG treatment group displayed upregulated mRNA expression of Cu/Zn-SOD and muscle regulatory factor 4. These results indicate that HRG may protect oxidative stress induced by exercise as well as improve exercise performance capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Montmorency Cherries Reduce the Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses to Repeated Days High-Intensity Stochastic Cycling
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 829-843; doi:10.3390/nu6020829
Received: 18 January 2014 / Revised: 9 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 21 February 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This investigation examined the impact of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) on physiological indices of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage across 3 days simulated road cycle racing. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were divided into equal groups and consumed 30 mL
[...] Read more.
This investigation examined the impact of Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) on physiological indices of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage across 3 days simulated road cycle racing. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were divided into equal groups and consumed 30 mL of MC or placebo (PLA), twice per day for seven consecutive days. A simulated, high-intensity, stochastic road cycling trial, lasting 109 min, was completed on days 5, 6 and 7. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured from blood samples collected at baseline and immediately pre- and post-trial on days 5, 6 and 7. Analyses for lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-β), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and creatine kinase (CK) were conducted. LOOH (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.05) and hsCRP (p < 0.05) responses to trials were lower in the MC group versus PLA. No group or interaction effects were found for the other markers. The attenuated oxidative and inflammatory responses suggest MC may be efficacious in combating post-exercise oxidative and inflammatory cascades that can contribute to cellular disruption. Additionally, we demonstrate direct application for MC in repeated days cycling and conceivably other sporting scenario’s where back-to-back performances are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Caffeine Reduces Reaction Time and Improves Performance in Simulated-Contest of Taekwondo
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 637-649; doi:10.3390/nu6020637
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed two combats (spaced apart by 20 min). The reaction-time test (five kicks “Bandal Tchagui”) was performed immediately prior to the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. Caffeine improved reaction time (from 0.42 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.07 s) only prior to the first combat (P = 0.004). During the first combat, break times during the first two rounds were shorter in caffeine ingestion, followed by higher plasma lactate concentrations compared with placebo (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). During the second combat, skipping-time was reduced, and relative attack times and attack/skipping ratio was increased following ingestion of caffeine during the first two rounds (all P < 0.05). Caffeine resulted in no change in combat intensity parameters between the first and second combat (all P > 0.05), but combat intensity was decreased following placebo (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine reduced reaction time in non-fatigued conditions and delayed fatigue during successive taekwondo combats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Aerobic Response during Swimming
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 605-615; doi:10.3390/nu6020605
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 9 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The beneficial effects of beetroot juice supplementation (BJS) have been tested during cycling, walking, and running. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether BJS can also improve performance in swimmers. Fourteen moderately trained male master swimmers were recruited and underwent
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The beneficial effects of beetroot juice supplementation (BJS) have been tested during cycling, walking, and running. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether BJS can also improve performance in swimmers. Fourteen moderately trained male master swimmers were recruited and underwent two incremental swimming tests randomly assigned in a pool during which workload, oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), and aerobic energy cost (AEC) of swimming were measured. One was a control swimming test (CSW) and the other a swimming test after six days of BJS (0.5l/day organic beetroot juice containing about 5.5 mmol of NO3). Results show that workload at anaerobic threshold was significantly increased by BJS as compared to the CSW test (6.3 ± 1 and 6.7 ± 1.1 kg during the CSW and the BJS test respectively). Moreover, AEC was significantly reduced during the BJS test (1.9 ± 0.5 during the SW test vs. 1.7 ± 0.3 kcal·kg−1·h−1 during the BJS test). The other variables lacked a statistically significant effect with BJS. The present investigation provides evidence that BJS positively affects performance of swimmers as it reduces the AEC and increases the workload at anaerobic threshold. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 63-75; doi:10.3390/nu6010063
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit
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This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13) and placebo (n = 15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively), with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001), with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day) significantly increased 25(OH)D2 and decreased 25(OH)D3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 37-49; doi:10.3390/nu6010037
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (375 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422
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This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8) after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C). Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass) were significantly greater (p < 0.001) than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL). Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during) with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL). Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG) = 1.018 ± 0.008) with no changes (p = 0.33) at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004) at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007), who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5140-5160; doi:10.3390/nu5125140
Received: 23 September 2013 / Revised: 24 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on
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Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on sport performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Performance during a Simulated Soccer Match
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 5193-5204; doi:10.3390/nu5125193
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 1 December 2013 / Accepted: 4 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim: This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO) solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO) during a simulated soccer match. Methods: Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer
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Aim: This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO) solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO) during a simulated soccer match. Methods: Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min) completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Results: Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81). Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11). Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass), such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87). Conclusions: The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO) did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Sublingual Nucleotides Prolong Run Time to Exhaustion in Young Physically Active Men
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4776-4785; doi:10.3390/nu5114776
Received: 30 September 2013 / Revised: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day)
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Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day) administered for 14 days in thirty young healthy physically active males, on endurance performance and immune responses. Fasting white blood cell count, natural killer cells (NKC) number, NKC cytotoxic activity, and serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), and time to exhaustion, peak rate of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, and peak running speed during the exercise test were measured at baseline (day 0) and post-intervention (day 14). Time to exhaustion, as well as serum immunoglobulin A and NKC cytotoxic activity, were significantly higher at day 14 (p < 0.05) in participants supplemented with nucleotides compared with those who consumed placebo. No significant differences in other parameters were observed between groups at post-intervention. No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study nor reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. The results of the present study suggest that sublingual nucleotides may provide pertinent benefit as both an ergogenic and immunostimulatory additive in active males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)

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Open AccessReview Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 4935-4960; doi:10.3390/nu6114935
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 18 June 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide
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The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2697-2717; doi:10.3390/nu6072697
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional
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Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Pre-Exercise Nutrition: The Role of Macronutrients, Modified Starches and Supplements on Metabolism and Endurance Performance
Nutrients 2014, 6(5), 1782-1808; doi:10.3390/nu6051782
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endurance athletes rarely compete in the fasted state, as this may compromise fuel stores. Thus, the timing and composition of the pre-exercise meal is a significant consideration for optimizing metabolism and subsequent endurance performance. Carbohydrate feedings prior to endurance exercise are common and
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Endurance athletes rarely compete in the fasted state, as this may compromise fuel stores. Thus, the timing and composition of the pre-exercise meal is a significant consideration for optimizing metabolism and subsequent endurance performance. Carbohydrate feedings prior to endurance exercise are common and have generally been shown to enhance performance, despite increasing insulin levels and reducing fat oxidation. These metabolic effects may be attenuated by consuming low glycemic index carbohydrates and/or modified starches before exercise. High fat meals seem to have beneficial metabolic effects (e.g., increasing fat oxidation and possibly sparing muscle glycogen). However, these effects do not necessarily translate into enhanced performance. Relatively little research has examined the effects of a pre-exercise high protein meal on subsequent performance, but there is some evidence to suggest enhanced pre-exercise glycogen synthesis and benefits to metabolism during exercise. Finally, various supplements (i.e., caffeine and beetroot juice) also warrant possible inclusion into pre-race nutrition for endurance athletes. Ultimately, further research is needed to optimize pre-exercise nutritional strategies for endurance performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Nutritional Strategies for the Preservation of Fat Free Mass at High Altitude
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 665-681; doi:10.3390/nu6020665
Received: 14 January 2014 / Revised: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks
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Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks associated with extreme environments presents potential performance, safety, and health risks for those working, recreating, or conducting military operations at extreme altitude. In this review, contributors to muscle wasting at altitude are highlighted with special emphasis on protein turnover. The article will conclude with nutritional strategies that may potentially attenuate loss of fat free mass during high altitude exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)
Figures

Open AccessReview Can Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Improve Performance during Exercise? A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 1-10; doi:10.3390/nu6010001
Received: 11 October 2013 / Revised: 5 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this review was to identify studies that have investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on exercise performance, and to quantify the overall mean difference of this type of manipulation across the studies. The main mechanisms involving the potential
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The purpose of this review was to identify studies that have investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on exercise performance, and to quantify the overall mean difference of this type of manipulation across the studies. The main mechanisms involving the potential benefit of CHO mouth rinse on performance was also explored. A systematic review was conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, SciELO, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), without limit of searches. Eleven studies were classified as appropriate and their results were summarized and compared. In nine of them, CHO mouth rinse increased the performance (range from 1.50% to 11.59%) during moderate- to high-intensity exercise (~75% Wmax or 65% VO2max, ~1 h duration). A statistical analysis to quantify the individual and overall mean differences was performed in seven of the 11 eligible studies that reported power output (watts, W) as the main performance outcome. The overall mean difference was calculated using a random-effect model that accounts for true variation in effects occurring in each study, as well as random error within a single study. The overall effect of CHO mouth rinse on performance was significant (mean difference = 5.05 W, 95% CI 0.90 to 9.2 W, z = 2.39, p = 0.02) but there was a large heterogeneity between the studies (I2 = 52%). An activation of the oral receptors and consequently brain areas involved with reward (insula/operculum frontal, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum) is suggested as a possible physiological mechanism responsible for the improved performance with CHO mouth rinse. However, this positive effect seems to be accentuated when muscle and liver glycogen stores are reduced, possibly due to a greater sensitivity of the oral receptors, and require further investigation. Differences in duration of fasting before the trial, duration of mouth rinse, type of activity, exercise protocols, and sample size may account for the large variability between the studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport and Performance Nutrition)

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