Nutrients 2014, 6(3), 1209-1222; doi:10.3390/nu6031209
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Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells

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Received: 2 December 2013; in revised form: 21 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A is a key dietary component that plays a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system. Natural and synthetic analogs of retinol, called retinoids, have generally been associated with the cell differentiation via retinoic acid which is the most potent metabolite of retinol. However, a direct function of retinol has not been fully investigated. New evidence has now emerged that retinol supports the self-renewal of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), germ line stem cells (GSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) by activating the endogenous machinery for self-renewal by a retinoic acid independent mechanism. The studies have also revealed that stem cells do not contain enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing retinol into retinoic acid. This new function of retinol may have important implications for stem cell biology which can be exploited for quantitative production of pure population of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine as well as clinical applications for cancer therapeutics.
Keywords: vitamin A; retinol; retinoic acid; embryonic stem cells; cancer stem cells; PI3 kinase signaling; OCT4; NANOG; SOX2; Insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khillan, J.S. Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells. Nutrients 2014, 6, 1209-1222.

AMA Style

Khillan JS. Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells. Nutrients. 2014; 6(3):1209-1222.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khillan, Jaspal S. 2014. "Vitamin A/Retinol and Maintenance of Pluripotency of Stem Cells." Nutrients 6, no. 3: 1209-1222.

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