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Nutrients, Volume 5, Issue 9 (September 2013), Pages 3329-3778

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Complex Effects of Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplementation on in Vitro Neonatal Mononuclear Cell Responses to Allergens
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3337-3351; doi:10.3390/nu5093337
Received: 17 April 2013 / Revised: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low maternal dietary vitamin E (but not vitamin C) intake during pregnancy has been associated with increased in vitro cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) proliferative responses, childhood wheezing and asthma. We investigated whether these associations reflect direct effects of vitamin E by [...] Read more.
Low maternal dietary vitamin E (but not vitamin C) intake during pregnancy has been associated with increased in vitro cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC) proliferative responses, childhood wheezing and asthma. We investigated whether these associations reflect direct effects of vitamin E by investigating the effects of supplementing CBMC cultures with physiological concentrations of vitamin E. CBMC from seventy neonates were cultured supplemented with either nothing, α-tocopherol or ascorbic acid. Proliferative, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β responses were measured. In general, vitamin E supplementation was associated with a trend for reduced proliferative responses after stimulation with antigens and house dust mite, and with increased proliferation after stimulation with timothy grass allergen. There was a trend for CBMC cultures to exhibit decreased secretion of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-4. Supplementation with vitamin C had no effect on CBMC proliferation, but increased IFN-γ and IL-4 production, and decreased IL-10 production. In conclusion, in vitro vitamin E and C supplementation of CBMC modifies neonatal immune function, but not in a manner predicted by observational epidemiological studies. The observed associations between vitamin E and childhood respiratory disease are complex, and the nature and form of nutritional intervention need to be carefully considered before inclusion in trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3352-3366; doi:10.3390/nu5093352
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 12 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight [...] Read more.
Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OH)D concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OH)D concentration and serum 25(OH)D concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01). Both SWAT and serum 25(OH)D concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OH)D3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OH)D3 or serum 25(OH)D after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OH)D does not likely contribute to serum 25(OH)D with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OH)D and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3447-3460; doi:10.3390/nu5093447
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 2 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare [...] Read more.
Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA), low-zinc (ZnL), high-zinc (ZnH) and supplemented-zinc (ZnS) diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days). Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS) than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3461-3469; doi:10.3390/nu5093461
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 3 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided [...] Read more.
We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3470-3480; doi:10.3390/nu5093470
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 24 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 5 September 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) may influence total plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. A likely cause is an increased synthesis of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Discrepant results are reported on whether the use of HC affects free concentrations of vitamin [...] Read more.
Use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) may influence total plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. A likely cause is an increased synthesis of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Discrepant results are reported on whether the use of HC affects free concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. Aim: In a cross-sectional study, plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, VDBP, and the calculated free vitamin D index in users and non-users of HC were compared and markers of calcium and bone metabolism investigated. Results: 75 Caucasian women aged 25–35 years were included during winter season. Compared with non-users (n = 23), users of HC (n = 52) had significantly higher plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) (median 84 interquartile range: [67–111] vs. 70 [47–83] nmol/L, p = 0.01), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) (198 [163–241] vs. 158 [123–183] pmol/L, p = 0.01) and VDBP (358 [260–432] vs. 271 [179–302] µg/mL, p < 0.001). However, the calculated free indices (FI-25OHD and FI-1,25(OH)2D) were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.10). There were no significant differences in indices of calcium homeostasis (plasma concentrations of calcium, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin, p > 0.21) or bone metabolism (plasma bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urinary NTX/creatinine ratio) between groups. In conclusion: Use of HC is associated with 13%–25% higher concentrations of total vitamin D metabolites and VDBP. This however is not reflected in indices of calcium or bone metabolism. Use of HC should be considered in the interpretation of plasma concentrations vitamin D metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Genetic Aspects of Scurvy and the European Famine of 1845–1848
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3582-3588; doi:10.3390/nu5093582
Received: 17 July 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The view of scurvy being exclusively a nutritional disorder needs to be updated. Genetic polymorphisms of HFE and haptoglobin (Hp) may explain the geographic variability of mortality caused by the European famine of the mid-19th century. In this period, potatoes had fallen [...] Read more.
The view of scurvy being exclusively a nutritional disorder needs to be updated. Genetic polymorphisms of HFE and haptoglobin (Hp) may explain the geographic variability of mortality caused by the European famine of the mid-19th century. In this period, potatoes had fallen victim to the potato blight and Ireland was more severely hit than continental Europe. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder with mutations in the HFE gene, characterized by iron overload (with a reduced vitamin C stability) and with a predominance of affected men. The Irish have the world’s highest frequency of the C282Y mutation and the particular iron metabolism of the Irish helps to understand the size of the catastrophe and the observed overrepresentation of male skeletons showing scurvy. Hp is a plasma α2-glycoprotein characterized by 3 common phenotypes (Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2). When the antioxidant capacity of Hp is insufficient, its role is taken over by hemopexin and vitamin C. The relative number of scurvy victims corresponds with the Hp 2-2 frequency, which is associated with iron conservation and has an impact on vitamin C stability. As iron is more abundant in males, males are overrepresented in the group of skeletons showing scurvy signs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Acute Effects of Different Multivitamin Mineral Preparations with and without Guaraná on Mood, Cognitive Performance and Functional Brain Activation
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3589-3604; doi:10.3390/nu5093589
Received: 8 August 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such [...] Read more.
Previous work has identified the positive effects of the acute administration of a multivitamin-guaraná preparation during an effortful executive/working memory task. Here, we aimed to differentiate the effects of multivitamins with and without guaraná and to examine the neural substrates of such effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, balanced crossover design, 20 participants (mean age 29 ± 5.54 years) consumed multivitamin preparations with or without guaraná (Berocca® Performance and Boost, respectively) and a placebo. Thirty minutes post-treatment, they underwent neurocognitive assessment, consisting of a 10 min Cognitive Demand Battery, with mood ratings taken immediately before and after the battery. Five additional participants underwent post-treatment fMRI scanning during Rapid Visual Information Processing and Inspection Time activation tasks. The multivitamin with guaraná treatment was associated with significantly enhanced Serial Threes performance and self-rated contentment. fMRI revealed that both multivitamin treatments increased activation in areas associated with working memory and attentional processing, with the effect being greater in the multivitamin with guaraná condition. These data confirm the acute benefits of multivitamins with guaraná on mood and cognitive performance. Furthermore, they demonstrate for the first time increased brain activation from multivitamin preparations both with and without guaraná, as measured using fMRI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Benefits of Nutrients)
Open AccessArticle Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3617-3633; doi:10.3390/nu5093617
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (240 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found [...] Read more.
Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biological Variability and Impact of Oral Contraceptives on Vitamins B6, B12 and Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3634-3645; doi:10.3390/nu5093634
Received: 25 June 2013 / Revised: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 16 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum [...] Read more.
Vitamins B6, B12 and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B6, B12, folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) for serum vitamins B6, B12 and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%–25.7% and 31.7%–62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was associated (P = 0.042) with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin B12 and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle A Randomized Steady-State Bioavailability Study of Synthetic versus Natural (Kiwifruit-Derived) Vitamin C
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3684-3695; doi:10.3390/nu5093684
Received: 23 July 2013 / Revised: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whether vitamin C from wholefoods has equivalent bioavailability to a purified supplement remains unclear. We have previously showed that kiwifruit provided significantly higher serum and tissue ascorbate levels than synthetic vitamin C in a genetically vitamin C-deficient mouse model, suggesting a synergistic [...] Read more.
Whether vitamin C from wholefoods has equivalent bioavailability to a purified supplement remains unclear. We have previously showed that kiwifruit provided significantly higher serum and tissue ascorbate levels than synthetic vitamin C in a genetically vitamin C-deficient mouse model, suggesting a synergistic activity of the whole fruit. To determine if these results are translatable to humans, we carried out a randomized human study comparing the bioavailability of vitamin C from kiwifruit with that of a vitamin C tablet of equivalent dosage. Thirty-six young non-smoking adult males were randomized to receive either half a gold kiwifruit (Actinidia Chinensis var. Hort 16A) per day or a comparable vitamin C dose (50 mg) in a chewable tablet for six weeks. Ascorbate was monitored weekly in fasting venous blood and in urine, semen, leukocytes, and skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) pre- and post-intervention. Dietary intake of vitamin C was monitored using seven day food and beverage records. Participant ascorbate levels increased in plasma (P < 0.001), urine (P < 0.05), mononuclear cells (P < 0.01), neutrophils (P < 0.01) and muscle tissue (P < 0.001) post intervention. There were no significant differences in vitamin C bioavailability between the two intervention groups in any of the fluid, cell or tissue samples tested. Overall, our study showed comparable bioavailability of synthetic and kiwifruit-derived vitamin C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C and Human Health) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Lycopene Supplement and Blood Pressure: An Updated Meta-Analysis of Intervention Trials
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3696-3712; doi:10.3390/nu5093696
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 12 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies suggested that lycopene supplement could decrease blood pressure, but the results were conflicting. We conducted an updated meta-analysis by screening PubMed databases, and calculated the combined effect size using a random effect model. In addition, subgroup analysis stratified by baseline [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies suggested that lycopene supplement could decrease blood pressure, but the results were conflicting. We conducted an updated meta-analysis by screening PubMed databases, and calculated the combined effect size using a random effect model. In addition, subgroup analysis stratified by baseline blood pressure, lycopene dosage, duration, study location and the funding support of the paper was also conducted. Six studies met our inclusion criteria, and the pooled analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mean SBP = −4.953 [−8.820, −1.086], p = 0.012) with obvious heterogeneity (p = 0.034, I2 = 58.5%). Subgroup analysis results showed that higher dosage of lycopene supplement (>12 mg/day) could lower SBP more significantly, especially for participants with baseline SBP >120 mmHg, or Asians, while lycopene intervention had no statistical effect on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mean DBP = −3.809 [−8.177, 0.560], p = 0.087), and obvious heterogeneity was also observed (p = 0.074, I2 = 53.1%). Our present study suggests that lycopene supplement >12 mg/day might effectively decrease SBP, particularly among Asians or population with higher baseline SBP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
Open AccessArticle Xylo-Oligosaccharides and Inulin Affect Genotoxicity and Bacterial Populations Differently in a Human Colonic Simulator Challenged with Soy Protein
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3740-3756; doi:10.3390/nu5093740
Received: 12 June 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 1 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human [...] Read more.
High dietary intakes of some protein sources, including soy protein, can increase colonic DNA damage in animals, whereas some carbohydrates attenuate this. We investigated whether inulin and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) could be protective against DNA strand breaks by adding them to a human colonic simulator consisting of a proximal vessel (PV) (pH 5.5) and a distal vessel (DV) (pH 6.8) inoculated with human faeces and media containing soy protein. Genotoxicity of the liquid phase and microbial population changes in the vessels were measured. Soy protein (3%) was fermented with 1% low amylose cornstarch for 10 day followed by soy protein with 1% XOS or 1% inulin for 10 day. Inulin did not alter genotoxicity but XOS significantly reduced PV genotoxicity and increased DV genotoxicity. Inulin and XOS significantly increased butyrate concentration in the DV but not PV. Numbers of the key butyrate-producing bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly increased in the PV and DV by inulin but significantly decreased by XOS in both vessels. Other bacteria examined were also significantly impacted by the carbohydrate treatments or by the vessel (i.e., pH). There was a significant overall inverse correlation between levels of damage induced by the ferments and levels of sulphate-reducing bacteria, Bacteroides fragilis, and acetate. In conclusion, dietary XOS can potentially modulate the genotoxicity of the colonic environment and specific bacterial groups and short chain fatty acids may mediate this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview 2013 Update on Celiac Disease and Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3329-3336; doi:10.3390/nu5093329
Received: 15 July 2013 / Revised: 31 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 22 August 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus [...] Read more.
Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder, characterized by small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy after the ingestion of gluten by genetically susceptible individuals. Several extraintestinal manifestations have been associated to celiac disease. Eosinophilic esophagitis is a primary disorder of the esophagus characterized by upper gastrointestinal symptoms, absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field in biopsy specimens. Both celiac disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are caused by aberrant, but distinct, immune responses to ingested antigens and can be responsive to restricted food intake. The aim of this review is to assess whether there is an association between these two pathologies. In the majority of the studies examined, including the studies in pediatric population, the prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in subjects with celiac disease was about 10-times that of the general population. We suggest searching for eosinophilic esophagitis in all children undergoing endoscopy for suspicious celiac disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3367-3387; doi:10.3390/nu5093367
Received: 10 June 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Diet and Allergic Diseases among Population Aged 0 to 18 Years: Myth or Reality?
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3399-3423; doi:10.3390/nu5093399
Received: 28 April 2013 / Revised: 6 August 2013 / Accepted: 7 August 2013 / Published: 29 August 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies [...] Read more.
Allergic diseases are an important health problem. However, epidemiological studies concerning childhood diet-related allergic diseases are scarce. This review examines published articles dealing with diet, dietary patterns and nutrition in relation with allergic diseases among population aged 0 to 18 years. Studies and trials were identified using MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and were limited to those published in English or French from 1992 until 2012. This manuscript also reviews the evidence for maternal diet during pregnancy and diet during early childhood and their association with childhood atopic diseases, taking into account the methodology used to evaluate dietary patterns. The evidence reviewed is derived from large epidemiological studies exploring the effects of different food categories on asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in children. Overall, maternal diet during pregnancy and a childhood diet rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids are considered as healthy diets that could be protective for allergic diseases in childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessReview Increasing Vitamin C Content in Plant Foods to Improve Their Nutritional Value—Successes and Challenges
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3424-3446; doi:10.3390/nu5093424
Received: 19 July 2013 / Revised: 16 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 30 August 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian [...] Read more.
Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview The Metabolic Burden of Methyl Donor Deficiency with Focus on the Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Pathway
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3481-3495; doi:10.3390/nu5093481
Received: 8 June 2013 / Revised: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (313 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methyl groups are important for numerous cellular functions such as DNA methylation, phosphatidylcholine synthesis, and protein synthesis. The methyl group can directly be delivered by dietary methyl donors, including methionine, folate, betaine, and choline. The liver and the muscles appear to be [...] Read more.
Methyl groups are important for numerous cellular functions such as DNA methylation, phosphatidylcholine synthesis, and protein synthesis. The methyl group can directly be delivered by dietary methyl donors, including methionine, folate, betaine, and choline. The liver and the muscles appear to be the major organs for methyl group metabolism. Choline can be synthesized from phosphatidylcholine via the cytidine-diphosphate (CDP) pathway. Low dietary choline loweres methionine formation and causes a marked increase in S-adenosylmethionine utilization in the liver. The link between choline, betaine, and energy metabolism in humans indicates novel functions for these nutrients. This function appears to goes beyond the role of the nutrients in gene methylation and epigenetic control. Studies that simulated methyl-deficient diets reported disturbances in energy metabolism and protein synthesis in the liver, fatty liver, or muscle disorders. Changes in plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) reflect one aspect of the metabolic consequences of methyl group deficiency or nutrient supplementations. Folic acid supplementation spares betaine as a methyl donor. Betaine is a significant determinant of plasma tHcy, particularly in case of folate deficiency, methionine load, or alcohol consumption. Betaine supplementation has a lowering effect on post-methionine load tHcy. Hypomethylation and tHcy elevation can be attenuated when choline or betaine is available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Folate Metabolism and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview The Effects of High Concentrations of Vitamin C on Cancer Cells
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3496-3505; doi:10.3390/nu5093496
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 22 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of high doses of vitamin C for the treatment of cancer has been controversial. Our previous studies, and studies by others, have reported that vitamin C at concentrations of 0.25–1.0 mM induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation in [...] Read more.
The effect of high doses of vitamin C for the treatment of cancer has been controversial. Our previous studies, and studies by others, have reported that vitamin C at concentrations of 0.25–1.0 mM induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and in leukemic cells from peripheral blood specimens obtained from patients with AML. Treatment of cells with high doses of vitamin C resulted in an immediate increase in intracellular total glutathione content and glutathione-S transferase activity that was accompanied by the uptake of cysteine. These results suggest a new role for high concentrations of vitamin C in modulation of intracellular sulfur containing compounds, such as glutathione and cysteine. This review, discussing biochemical pharmacologic studies, including pharmacogenomic and pharmacoproteomic studies, presents the different pharmacological effects of vitamin C currently under investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Immunometabolism in Obese Asthmatics: Are We There Yet?
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3506-3530; doi:10.3390/nu5093506
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is now recognised as a worldwide epidemic. The recent International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Taskforce (IASO/IOTF) analysis estimates that approximately 1.0 billion adults are currently overweight and a further 475 million are obese. Obesity has huge psychosocial impact [...] Read more.
Obesity is now recognised as a worldwide epidemic. The recent International Association for the Study of Obesity/International Obesity Taskforce (IASO/IOTF) analysis estimates that approximately 1.0 billion adults are currently overweight and a further 475 million are obese. Obesity has huge psychosocial impact with obese children and adolescents facing discrimination and stigmatization in many areas of their lives leading to body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem and depression. Indeed, obesity is recognised as an important risk factor for the development of several chronic diseases such as hypertension, cancer, asthma and metabolic syndrome. Chronic low grade systemic inflammation is considered as a hallmark of obesity and may possibly explain the link between obesity and chronic disease, in particular the increased incidence, prevalence and severity of asthma in obese individuals. There is now strong evidence for infiltration of immune and inflammatory cells into adipose tissue that drives systemic inflammation and subsequent end organ damage. In addition to adipocytes, the key adipose tissue resident immune cells are macrophages and mast cells. Immunometabolism, as an emerging field of investigation, explores the pivotal role of these immune cells in translating immunological changes to metabolic effects in obesity. Abundance of free fatty acids, along with other inflammatory cytokines shift the balance of metabolic homeostasis to pro-inflammatory status by influencing the development of inflammatory cell lineage, which, further exhibits distinct functional phenotypes. There is emerging evidence for macrophage activation and functional polarization of an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype of macrophages in obese adipose tissue. Similarly, studies in both obese humans and murine models reveal the pathognomic presence of an increased number of mast cells in visceral adipose tissue. These suggest a possible contribution of mast cells to the unique metabolome of obese asthma. This review examines proposed multilevel interactions between metabolic and immune systems in obese asthmatics that underlie the negative effects of obesity and may offer significant therapeutic promise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3531-3550; doi:10.3390/nu5093531
Received: 5 July 2013 / Revised: 10 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 10 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA [...] Read more.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin B12 and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3551-3562; doi:10.3390/nu5093551
Received: 26 July 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to identify relevant studies including both case-control and cohort studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. We identified eight studies (two cohort studies and six case-control studies) on vitamin D intake during early life and three studies (two cohort studies and one case-control study) on maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for type 1 diabetes comparing vitamin D supplementation with non-supplementation during early life was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.98). Similar results were observed in the case-control subgroup analysis but not in the cohort subgroup analysis. The pooled odds ratio with maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66–1.36). In conclusion, vitamin D intake during early life may be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. However, there was not enough evidence for an association between maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Absorption of Vitamin A and Carotenoids by the Enterocyte: Focus on Transport Proteins
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3563-3581; doi:10.3390/nu5093563
Received: 24 June 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in most developing countries, especially in children and pregnant women. It is thus a priority in health policy to improve preformed vitamin A and/or provitamin A carotenoid status in these individuals. A more accurate [...] Read more.
Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in most developing countries, especially in children and pregnant women. It is thus a priority in health policy to improve preformed vitamin A and/or provitamin A carotenoid status in these individuals. A more accurate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of intestinal vitamin A absorption is a key step in this direction. It was long thought that β-carotene (the main provitamin A carotenoid in human diet), and thus all carotenoids, were absorbed by a passive diffusion process, and that preformed vitamin A (retinol) absorption occurred via an unidentified energy-dependent transporter. The discovery of proteins able to facilitate carotenoid uptake and secretion by the enterocyte during the past decade has challenged established assumptions, and the elucidation of the mechanisms of retinol intestinal absorption is in progress. After an overview of vitamin A and carotenoid fate during gastro-duodenal digestion, our focus will be directed to the putative or identified proteins participating in the intestinal membrane and cellular transport of vitamin A and carotenoids across the enterocyte (i.e., Scavenger Receptors or Cellular Retinol Binding Proteins, among others). Further progress in the identification of the proteins involved in intestinal transport of vitamin A and carotenoids across the enterocyte is of major importance for optimizing their bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3605-3616; doi:10.3390/nu5093605
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The plethora of vitamin D studies over the recent years highlight the pleomorphic effects of vitamin D outside its conventional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency, though common and known, still faces several challenges among the medical community in [...] Read more.
The plethora of vitamin D studies over the recent years highlight the pleomorphic effects of vitamin D outside its conventional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency, though common and known, still faces several challenges among the medical community in terms of proper diagnosis and correction. In this review, the different levels of vitamin D and its clinical implications are highlighted. Recommendations and consensuses for the appropriate dose and duration for each vitamin D status are also emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3646-3683; doi:10.3390/nu5093646
Received: 11 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition [...] Read more.
Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessReview Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: A Practical Guide
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3730-3739; doi:10.3390/nu5093730
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is an element necessary for cells due to its capacity of transporting oxygen and electrons. One of the important co-morbidities in heart failure is iron deficiency. Iron has relevant biological functions, for example, the formation of haemoglobin, myoglobin and numerous enzymatic [...] Read more.
Iron is an element necessary for cells due to its capacity of transporting oxygen and electrons. One of the important co-morbidities in heart failure is iron deficiency. Iron has relevant biological functions, for example, the formation of haemoglobin, myoglobin and numerous enzymatic groups. The prevalence of iron deficiency increases with the severity of heart failure. For a long time, the influence of iron deficiency was underestimated especially in terms of worsening of cardiovascular diseases and of developing anaemia. In recent years, studies with intravenous iron agents in patients with iron deficiency and cardiovascular diseases indicated new insights in the improvement of therapy. Experimental studies support the understanding of iron metabolism. Many physicians remain doubtful of the use of intravenous iron due to reports of side effects. The aim of this review is to describe iron metabolism in humans, to highlight the influence of iron deficiency on the course and symptoms of heart failure, discuss diagnostic tools of iron deficiency and provide guidance on the use of intravenous iron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Activation and Regulation of the Pattern Recognition Receptors in Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3757-3778; doi:10.3390/nu5093757
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. Recent advances in deciphering the various immune cells and signaling networks [...] Read more.
Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. Recent advances in deciphering the various immune cells and signaling networks that link the immune and metabolic systems have contributed to our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity-associated inflammation. Other recent studies have suggested that pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system recognize various kinds of endogenous and exogenous ligands, and have a crucial role in initiating or promoting obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Importantly, these mediators act on insulin target cells or on insulin-producing cells impairing insulin sensitivity and its secretion. Here, we discuss how various pattern recognition receptors in the immune system underlie the etiology of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, with a particular focus on the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family protein Radioprotective 105 (RP105)/myeloid differentiation protein-1 (MD-1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)

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Open AccessConcept Paper Life Events and the Onset of Celiac Disease from a Patient’s Perspective
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3388-3398; doi:10.3390/nu5093388
Received: 7 June 2013 / Revised: 9 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stressful events have been investigated in various immune-mediated diseases but not in celiac disease. Our aim was to examine the relationship of stressful events assessed by the standardized interview of Paykel with the diagnosis of celiac disease in comparison to patients, with [...] Read more.
Stressful events have been investigated in various immune-mediated diseases but not in celiac disease. Our aim was to examine the relationship of stressful events assessed by the standardized interview of Paykel with the diagnosis of celiac disease in comparison to patients, with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease used as the control group. Adults with celiac disease (n = 186) reported more frequent and more severe life events in the years prior to the diagnosis than control patients (n = 96) (67.2% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.001, mean Paykel score 11.5 vs. 13.4, p = 0.001, respectively). Findings were not significantly different between celiac disease and control patients for the time lapse between the event and the diagnosis (mean 5.5 vs. 5.7 months). Pregnancy was defined as a negative event by 20.3% of celiac women, but never by control women. Findings were confirmed when analyses were repeated in the subgroup of patients of both groups with diagnosis made within one year of onset of symptoms. Data indicate that, before diagnosis, the number of stressful events in celiac disease was more frequent although less severe than in the control group suggesting that life events may favor the clinical appearance of celiac disease or accelerate its diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease) Print Edition available
Open AccessProject Report Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Pediatric Asthma: The Role of Parental Perception of Child Weight Status
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3713-3729; doi:10.3390/nu5093713
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child’s overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)

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