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Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3470-3480; doi:10.3390/nu5093470
Article

Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Received: 19 July 2013; in revised form: 24 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 5 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
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Abstract: Use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) may influence total plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. A likely cause is an increased synthesis of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Discrepant results are reported on whether the use of HC affects free concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. Aim: In a cross-sectional study, plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, VDBP, and the calculated free vitamin D index in users and non-users of HC were compared and markers of calcium and bone metabolism investigated. Results: 75 Caucasian women aged 25–35 years were included during winter season. Compared with non-users (n = 23), users of HC (n = 52) had significantly higher plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) (median 84 interquartile range: [67–111] vs. 70 [47–83] nmol/L, p = 0.01), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) (198 [163–241] vs. 158 [123–183] pmol/L, p = 0.01) and VDBP (358 [260–432] vs. 271 [179–302] µg/mL, p < 0.001). However, the calculated free indices (FI-25OHD and FI-1,25(OH)2D) were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.10). There were no significant differences in indices of calcium homeostasis (plasma concentrations of calcium, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin, p > 0.21) or bone metabolism (plasma bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urinary NTX/creatinine ratio) between groups. In conclusion: Use of HC is associated with 13%–25% higher concentrations of total vitamin D metabolites and VDBP. This however is not reflected in indices of calcium or bone metabolism. Use of HC should be considered in the interpretation of plasma concentrations vitamin D metabolites.
Keywords: hormonal contraceptives; 25hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D binding protein; parathyroid hormone; calcitonin; bone turnover; bone mineral density hormonal contraceptives; 25hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D binding protein; parathyroid hormone; calcitonin; bone turnover; bone mineral density
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Møller, U.K.; Streym, S.V.; Jensen, L.T.; Mosekilde, L.; Schoenmakers, I.; Nigdikar, S.; Rejnmark, L. Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3470-3480.

AMA Style

Møller UK, Streym SV, Jensen LT, Mosekilde L, Schoenmakers I, Nigdikar S, Rejnmark L. Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3470-3480.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Møller, Ulla K.; Streym, Susanna V.; Jensen, Lars T.; Mosekilde, Leif; Schoenmakers, Inez; Nigdikar, Shailja; Rejnmark, Lars. 2013. "Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3470-3480.



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