Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3470-3480; doi:10.3390/nu5093470
Article

Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study

1 Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, THG, Aarhus University Hospital, Tage Hansens Gade 2, DK, Aarhus 8000, Denmark 2 Department of Clinical Physiology, Glostrup University Hospital, Copenhagen DK-2900, Denmark 3 MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge CB1 9NL, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2013; in revised form: 24 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 5 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [317 KB, uploaded 5 September 2013 11:30 CEST]
Abstract: Use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) may influence total plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. A likely cause is an increased synthesis of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Discrepant results are reported on whether the use of HC affects free concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. Aim: In a cross-sectional study, plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, VDBP, and the calculated free vitamin D index in users and non-users of HC were compared and markers of calcium and bone metabolism investigated. Results: 75 Caucasian women aged 25–35 years were included during winter season. Compared with non-users (n = 23), users of HC (n = 52) had significantly higher plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) (median 84 interquartile range: [67–111] vs. 70 [47–83] nmol/L, p = 0.01), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) (198 [163–241] vs. 158 [123–183] pmol/L, p = 0.01) and VDBP (358 [260–432] vs. 271 [179–302] µg/mL, p < 0.001). However, the calculated free indices (FI-25OHD and FI-1,25(OH)2D) were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.10). There were no significant differences in indices of calcium homeostasis (plasma concentrations of calcium, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin, p > 0.21) or bone metabolism (plasma bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urinary NTX/creatinine ratio) between groups. In conclusion: Use of HC is associated with 13%–25% higher concentrations of total vitamin D metabolites and VDBP. This however is not reflected in indices of calcium or bone metabolism. Use of HC should be considered in the interpretation of plasma concentrations vitamin D metabolites.
Keywords: hormonal contraceptives; 25hydroxyvitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D binding protein; parathyroid hormone; calcitonin; bone turnover; bone mineral density

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Møller, U.K.; Streym, S.V.; Jensen, L.T.; Mosekilde, L.; Schoenmakers, I.; Nigdikar, S.; Rejnmark, L. Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3470-3480.

AMA Style

Møller UK, Streym SV, Jensen LT, Mosekilde L, Schoenmakers I, Nigdikar S, Rejnmark L. Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2013; 5(9):3470-3480.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Møller, Ulla K.; Streym, Susanna V.; Jensen, Lars T.; Mosekilde, Leif; Schoenmakers, Inez; Nigdikar, Shailja; Rejnmark, Lars. 2013. "Increased Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D Metabolites and Vitamin D Binding Protein in Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives: A Cross-Sectional Study." Nutrients 5, no. 9: 3470-3480.

Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert